Merge remote-tracking branch 'remotes/kevin/tags/for-upstream' into staging
[qemu.git] / qemu-img.c
1 /*
2 * QEMU disk image utility
3 *
4 * Copyright (c) 2003-2008 Fabrice Bellard
5 *
6 * Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
7 * of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
8 * in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
9 * to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
10 * copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
11 * furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
12 *
13 * The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
14 * all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
15 *
16 * THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
17 * IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
18 * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL
19 * THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
20 * LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
21 * OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
22 * THE SOFTWARE.
23 */
24 #include "qapi-visit.h"
25 #include "qapi/qmp-output-visitor.h"
26 #include "qapi/qmp/qjson.h"
27 #include "qemu-common.h"
28 #include "qemu/option.h"
29 #include "qemu/error-report.h"
30 #include "qemu/osdep.h"
31 #include "sysemu/sysemu.h"
32 #include "block/block_int.h"
33 #include "block/qapi.h"
34 #include <getopt.h>
35
36 typedef struct img_cmd_t {
37 const char *name;
38 int (*handler)(int argc, char **argv);
39 } img_cmd_t;
40
41 enum {
42 OPTION_OUTPUT = 256,
43 OPTION_BACKING_CHAIN = 257,
44 };
45
46 typedef enum OutputFormat {
47 OFORMAT_JSON,
48 OFORMAT_HUMAN,
49 } OutputFormat;
50
51 /* Default to cache=writeback as data integrity is not important for qemu-tcg. */
52 #define BDRV_O_FLAGS BDRV_O_CACHE_WB
53 #define BDRV_DEFAULT_CACHE "writeback"
54
55 static void format_print(void *opaque, const char *name)
56 {
57 printf(" %s", name);
58 }
59
60 /* Please keep in synch with qemu-img.texi */
61 static void help(void)
62 {
63 const char *help_msg =
64 "qemu-img version " QEMU_VERSION ", Copyright (c) 2004-2008 Fabrice Bellard\n"
65 "usage: qemu-img command [command options]\n"
66 "QEMU disk image utility\n"
67 "\n"
68 "Command syntax:\n"
69 #define DEF(option, callback, arg_string) \
70 " " arg_string "\n"
71 #include "qemu-img-cmds.h"
72 #undef DEF
73 #undef GEN_DOCS
74 "\n"
75 "Command parameters:\n"
76 " 'filename' is a disk image filename\n"
77 " 'fmt' is the disk image format. It is guessed automatically in most cases\n"
78 " 'cache' is the cache mode used to write the output disk image, the valid\n"
79 " options are: 'none', 'writeback' (default, except for convert), 'writethrough',\n"
80 " 'directsync' and 'unsafe' (default for convert)\n"
81 " 'size' is the disk image size in bytes. Optional suffixes\n"
82 " 'k' or 'K' (kilobyte, 1024), 'M' (megabyte, 1024k), 'G' (gigabyte, 1024M),\n"
83 " 'T' (terabyte, 1024G), 'P' (petabyte, 1024T) and 'E' (exabyte, 1024P) are\n"
84 " supported. 'b' is ignored.\n"
85 " 'output_filename' is the destination disk image filename\n"
86 " 'output_fmt' is the destination format\n"
87 " 'options' is a comma separated list of format specific options in a\n"
88 " name=value format. Use -o ? for an overview of the options supported by the\n"
89 " used format\n"
90 " 'snapshot_param' is param used for internal snapshot, format\n"
91 " is 'snapshot.id=[ID],snapshot.name=[NAME]', or\n"
92 " '[ID_OR_NAME]'\n"
93 " 'snapshot_id_or_name' is deprecated, use 'snapshot_param'\n"
94 " instead\n"
95 " '-c' indicates that target image must be compressed (qcow format only)\n"
96 " '-u' enables unsafe rebasing. It is assumed that old and new backing file\n"
97 " match exactly. The image doesn't need a working backing file before\n"
98 " rebasing in this case (useful for renaming the backing file)\n"
99 " '-h' with or without a command shows this help and lists the supported formats\n"
100 " '-p' show progress of command (only certain commands)\n"
101 " '-q' use Quiet mode - do not print any output (except errors)\n"
102 " '-S' indicates the consecutive number of bytes (defaults to 4k) that must\n"
103 " contain only zeros for qemu-img to create a sparse image during\n"
104 " conversion. If the number of bytes is 0, the source will not be scanned for\n"
105 " unallocated or zero sectors, and the destination image will always be\n"
106 " fully allocated\n"
107 " '--output' takes the format in which the output must be done (human or json)\n"
108 " '-n' skips the target volume creation (useful if the volume is created\n"
109 " prior to running qemu-img)\n"
110 "\n"
111 "Parameters to check subcommand:\n"
112 " '-r' tries to repair any inconsistencies that are found during the check.\n"
113 " '-r leaks' repairs only cluster leaks, whereas '-r all' fixes all\n"
114 " kinds of errors, with a higher risk of choosing the wrong fix or\n"
115 " hiding corruption that has already occurred.\n"
116 "\n"
117 "Parameters to snapshot subcommand:\n"
118 " 'snapshot' is the name of the snapshot to create, apply or delete\n"
119 " '-a' applies a snapshot (revert disk to saved state)\n"
120 " '-c' creates a snapshot\n"
121 " '-d' deletes a snapshot\n"
122 " '-l' lists all snapshots in the given image\n"
123 "\n"
124 "Parameters to compare subcommand:\n"
125 " '-f' first image format\n"
126 " '-F' second image format\n"
127 " '-s' run in Strict mode - fail on different image size or sector allocation\n";
128
129 printf("%s\nSupported formats:", help_msg);
130 bdrv_iterate_format(format_print, NULL);
131 printf("\n");
132 exit(1);
133 }
134
135 static int GCC_FMT_ATTR(2, 3) qprintf(bool quiet, const char *fmt, ...)
136 {
137 int ret = 0;
138 if (!quiet) {
139 va_list args;
140 va_start(args, fmt);
141 ret = vprintf(fmt, args);
142 va_end(args);
143 }
144 return ret;
145 }
146
147 #if defined(WIN32)
148 /* XXX: put correct support for win32 */
149 static int read_password(char *buf, int buf_size)
150 {
151 int c, i;
152 printf("Password: ");
153 fflush(stdout);
154 i = 0;
155 for(;;) {
156 c = getchar();
157 if (c == '\n')
158 break;
159 if (i < (buf_size - 1))
160 buf[i++] = c;
161 }
162 buf[i] = '\0';
163 return 0;
164 }
165
166 #else
167
168 #include <termios.h>
169
170 static struct termios oldtty;
171
172 static void term_exit(void)
173 {
174 tcsetattr (0, TCSANOW, &oldtty);
175 }
176
177 static void term_init(void)
178 {
179 struct termios tty;
180
181 tcgetattr (0, &tty);
182 oldtty = tty;
183
184 tty.c_iflag &= ~(IGNBRK|BRKINT|PARMRK|ISTRIP
185 |INLCR|IGNCR|ICRNL|IXON);
186 tty.c_oflag |= OPOST;
187 tty.c_lflag &= ~(ECHO|ECHONL|ICANON|IEXTEN);
188 tty.c_cflag &= ~(CSIZE|PARENB);
189 tty.c_cflag |= CS8;
190 tty.c_cc[VMIN] = 1;
191 tty.c_cc[VTIME] = 0;
192
193 tcsetattr (0, TCSANOW, &tty);
194
195 atexit(term_exit);
196 }
197
198 static int read_password(char *buf, int buf_size)
199 {
200 uint8_t ch;
201 int i, ret;
202
203 printf("password: ");
204 fflush(stdout);
205 term_init();
206 i = 0;
207 for(;;) {
208 ret = read(0, &ch, 1);
209 if (ret == -1) {
210 if (errno == EAGAIN || errno == EINTR) {
211 continue;
212 } else {
213 ret = -1;
214 break;
215 }
216 } else if (ret == 0) {
217 ret = -1;
218 break;
219 } else {
220 if (ch == '\r') {
221 ret = 0;
222 break;
223 }
224 if (i < (buf_size - 1))
225 buf[i++] = ch;
226 }
227 }
228 term_exit();
229 buf[i] = '\0';
230 printf("\n");
231 return ret;
232 }
233 #endif
234
235 static int print_block_option_help(const char *filename, const char *fmt)
236 {
237 BlockDriver *drv, *proto_drv;
238 QEMUOptionParameter *create_options = NULL;
239
240 /* Find driver and parse its options */
241 drv = bdrv_find_format(fmt);
242 if (!drv) {
243 error_report("Unknown file format '%s'", fmt);
244 return 1;
245 }
246
247 create_options = append_option_parameters(create_options,
248 drv->create_options);
249
250 if (filename) {
251 proto_drv = bdrv_find_protocol(filename, true);
252 if (!proto_drv) {
253 error_report("Unknown protocol '%s'", filename);
254 return 1;
255 }
256 create_options = append_option_parameters(create_options,
257 proto_drv->create_options);
258 }
259
260 print_option_help(create_options);
261 free_option_parameters(create_options);
262 return 0;
263 }
264
265 static BlockDriverState *bdrv_new_open(const char *filename,
266 const char *fmt,
267 int flags,
268 bool require_io,
269 bool quiet)
270 {
271 BlockDriverState *bs;
272 BlockDriver *drv;
273 char password[256];
274 Error *local_err = NULL;
275 int ret;
276
277 bs = bdrv_new("image");
278
279 if (fmt) {
280 drv = bdrv_find_format(fmt);
281 if (!drv) {
282 error_report("Unknown file format '%s'", fmt);
283 goto fail;
284 }
285 } else {
286 drv = NULL;
287 }
288
289 ret = bdrv_open(&bs, filename, NULL, NULL, flags, drv, &local_err);
290 if (ret < 0) {
291 error_report("Could not open '%s': %s", filename,
292 error_get_pretty(local_err));
293 error_free(local_err);
294 goto fail;
295 }
296
297 if (bdrv_is_encrypted(bs) && require_io) {
298 qprintf(quiet, "Disk image '%s' is encrypted.\n", filename);
299 if (read_password(password, sizeof(password)) < 0) {
300 error_report("No password given");
301 goto fail;
302 }
303 if (bdrv_set_key(bs, password) < 0) {
304 error_report("invalid password");
305 goto fail;
306 }
307 }
308 return bs;
309 fail:
310 bdrv_unref(bs);
311 return NULL;
312 }
313
314 static int add_old_style_options(const char *fmt, QEMUOptionParameter *list,
315 const char *base_filename,
316 const char *base_fmt)
317 {
318 if (base_filename) {
319 if (set_option_parameter(list, BLOCK_OPT_BACKING_FILE, base_filename)) {
320 error_report("Backing file not supported for file format '%s'",
321 fmt);
322 return -1;
323 }
324 }
325 if (base_fmt) {
326 if (set_option_parameter(list, BLOCK_OPT_BACKING_FMT, base_fmt)) {
327 error_report("Backing file format not supported for file "
328 "format '%s'", fmt);
329 return -1;
330 }
331 }
332 return 0;
333 }
334
335 static int img_create(int argc, char **argv)
336 {
337 int c;
338 uint64_t img_size = -1;
339 const char *fmt = "raw";
340 const char *base_fmt = NULL;
341 const char *filename;
342 const char *base_filename = NULL;
343 char *options = NULL;
344 Error *local_err = NULL;
345 bool quiet = false;
346
347 for(;;) {
348 c = getopt(argc, argv, "F:b:f:he6o:q");
349 if (c == -1) {
350 break;
351 }
352 switch(c) {
353 case '?':
354 case 'h':
355 help();
356 break;
357 case 'F':
358 base_fmt = optarg;
359 break;
360 case 'b':
361 base_filename = optarg;
362 break;
363 case 'f':
364 fmt = optarg;
365 break;
366 case 'e':
367 error_report("option -e is deprecated, please use \'-o "
368 "encryption\' instead!");
369 goto fail;
370 case '6':
371 error_report("option -6 is deprecated, please use \'-o "
372 "compat6\' instead!");
373 goto fail;
374 case 'o':
375 if (!is_valid_option_list(optarg)) {
376 error_report("Invalid option list: %s", optarg);
377 goto fail;
378 }
379 if (!options) {
380 options = g_strdup(optarg);
381 } else {
382 char *old_options = options;
383 options = g_strdup_printf("%s,%s", options, optarg);
384 g_free(old_options);
385 }
386 break;
387 case 'q':
388 quiet = true;
389 break;
390 }
391 }
392
393 /* Get the filename */
394 filename = (optind < argc) ? argv[optind] : NULL;
395 if (options && has_help_option(options)) {
396 g_free(options);
397 return print_block_option_help(filename, fmt);
398 }
399
400 if (optind >= argc) {
401 help();
402 }
403 optind++;
404
405 /* Get image size, if specified */
406 if (optind < argc) {
407 int64_t sval;
408 char *end;
409 sval = strtosz_suffix(argv[optind++], &end, STRTOSZ_DEFSUFFIX_B);
410 if (sval < 0 || *end) {
411 if (sval == -ERANGE) {
412 error_report("Image size must be less than 8 EiB!");
413 } else {
414 error_report("Invalid image size specified! You may use k, M, "
415 "G, T, P or E suffixes for ");
416 error_report("kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, terabytes, "
417 "petabytes and exabytes.");
418 }
419 goto fail;
420 }
421 img_size = (uint64_t)sval;
422 }
423 if (optind != argc) {
424 help();
425 }
426
427 bdrv_img_create(filename, fmt, base_filename, base_fmt,
428 options, img_size, BDRV_O_FLAGS, &local_err, quiet);
429 if (local_err) {
430 error_report("%s: %s", filename, error_get_pretty(local_err));
431 error_free(local_err);
432 goto fail;
433 }
434
435 g_free(options);
436 return 0;
437
438 fail:
439 g_free(options);
440 return 1;
441 }
442
443 static void dump_json_image_check(ImageCheck *check, bool quiet)
444 {
445 Error *errp = NULL;
446 QString *str;
447 QmpOutputVisitor *ov = qmp_output_visitor_new();
448 QObject *obj;
449 visit_type_ImageCheck(qmp_output_get_visitor(ov),
450 &check, NULL, &errp);
451 obj = qmp_output_get_qobject(ov);
452 str = qobject_to_json_pretty(obj);
453 assert(str != NULL);
454 qprintf(quiet, "%s\n", qstring_get_str(str));
455 qobject_decref(obj);
456 qmp_output_visitor_cleanup(ov);
457 QDECREF(str);
458 }
459
460 static void dump_human_image_check(ImageCheck *check, bool quiet)
461 {
462 if (!(check->corruptions || check->leaks || check->check_errors)) {
463 qprintf(quiet, "No errors were found on the image.\n");
464 } else {
465 if (check->corruptions) {
466 qprintf(quiet, "\n%" PRId64 " errors were found on the image.\n"
467 "Data may be corrupted, or further writes to the image "
468 "may corrupt it.\n",
469 check->corruptions);
470 }
471
472 if (check->leaks) {
473 qprintf(quiet,
474 "\n%" PRId64 " leaked clusters were found on the image.\n"
475 "This means waste of disk space, but no harm to data.\n",
476 check->leaks);
477 }
478
479 if (check->check_errors) {
480 qprintf(quiet,
481 "\n%" PRId64
482 " internal errors have occurred during the check.\n",
483 check->check_errors);
484 }
485 }
486
487 if (check->total_clusters != 0 && check->allocated_clusters != 0) {
488 qprintf(quiet, "%" PRId64 "/%" PRId64 " = %0.2f%% allocated, "
489 "%0.2f%% fragmented, %0.2f%% compressed clusters\n",
490 check->allocated_clusters, check->total_clusters,
491 check->allocated_clusters * 100.0 / check->total_clusters,
492 check->fragmented_clusters * 100.0 / check->allocated_clusters,
493 check->compressed_clusters * 100.0 /
494 check->allocated_clusters);
495 }
496
497 if (check->image_end_offset) {
498 qprintf(quiet,
499 "Image end offset: %" PRId64 "\n", check->image_end_offset);
500 }
501 }
502
503 static int collect_image_check(BlockDriverState *bs,
504 ImageCheck *check,
505 const char *filename,
506 const char *fmt,
507 int fix)
508 {
509 int ret;
510 BdrvCheckResult result;
511
512 ret = bdrv_check(bs, &result, fix);
513 if (ret < 0) {
514 return ret;
515 }
516
517 check->filename = g_strdup(filename);
518 check->format = g_strdup(bdrv_get_format_name(bs));
519 check->check_errors = result.check_errors;
520 check->corruptions = result.corruptions;
521 check->has_corruptions = result.corruptions != 0;
522 check->leaks = result.leaks;
523 check->has_leaks = result.leaks != 0;
524 check->corruptions_fixed = result.corruptions_fixed;
525 check->has_corruptions_fixed = result.corruptions != 0;
526 check->leaks_fixed = result.leaks_fixed;
527 check->has_leaks_fixed = result.leaks != 0;
528 check->image_end_offset = result.image_end_offset;
529 check->has_image_end_offset = result.image_end_offset != 0;
530 check->total_clusters = result.bfi.total_clusters;
531 check->has_total_clusters = result.bfi.total_clusters != 0;
532 check->allocated_clusters = result.bfi.allocated_clusters;
533 check->has_allocated_clusters = result.bfi.allocated_clusters != 0;
534 check->fragmented_clusters = result.bfi.fragmented_clusters;
535 check->has_fragmented_clusters = result.bfi.fragmented_clusters != 0;
536 check->compressed_clusters = result.bfi.compressed_clusters;
537 check->has_compressed_clusters = result.bfi.compressed_clusters != 0;
538
539 return 0;
540 }
541
542 /*
543 * Checks an image for consistency. Exit codes:
544 *
545 * 0 - Check completed, image is good
546 * 1 - Check not completed because of internal errors
547 * 2 - Check completed, image is corrupted
548 * 3 - Check completed, image has leaked clusters, but is good otherwise
549 */
550 static int img_check(int argc, char **argv)
551 {
552 int c, ret;
553 OutputFormat output_format = OFORMAT_HUMAN;
554 const char *filename, *fmt, *output;
555 BlockDriverState *bs;
556 int fix = 0;
557 int flags = BDRV_O_FLAGS | BDRV_O_CHECK;
558 ImageCheck *check;
559 bool quiet = false;
560
561 fmt = NULL;
562 output = NULL;
563 for(;;) {
564 int option_index = 0;
565 static const struct option long_options[] = {
566 {"help", no_argument, 0, 'h'},
567 {"format", required_argument, 0, 'f'},
568 {"repair", no_argument, 0, 'r'},
569 {"output", required_argument, 0, OPTION_OUTPUT},
570 {0, 0, 0, 0}
571 };
572 c = getopt_long(argc, argv, "f:hr:q",
573 long_options, &option_index);
574 if (c == -1) {
575 break;
576 }
577 switch(c) {
578 case '?':
579 case 'h':
580 help();
581 break;
582 case 'f':
583 fmt = optarg;
584 break;
585 case 'r':
586 flags |= BDRV_O_RDWR;
587
588 if (!strcmp(optarg, "leaks")) {
589 fix = BDRV_FIX_LEAKS;
590 } else if (!strcmp(optarg, "all")) {
591 fix = BDRV_FIX_LEAKS | BDRV_FIX_ERRORS;
592 } else {
593 help();
594 }
595 break;
596 case OPTION_OUTPUT:
597 output = optarg;
598 break;
599 case 'q':
600 quiet = true;
601 break;
602 }
603 }
604 if (optind != argc - 1) {
605 help();
606 }
607 filename = argv[optind++];
608
609 if (output && !strcmp(output, "json")) {
610 output_format = OFORMAT_JSON;
611 } else if (output && !strcmp(output, "human")) {
612 output_format = OFORMAT_HUMAN;
613 } else if (output) {
614 error_report("--output must be used with human or json as argument.");
615 return 1;
616 }
617
618 bs = bdrv_new_open(filename, fmt, flags, true, quiet);
619 if (!bs) {
620 return 1;
621 }
622
623 check = g_new0(ImageCheck, 1);
624 ret = collect_image_check(bs, check, filename, fmt, fix);
625
626 if (ret == -ENOTSUP) {
627 if (output_format == OFORMAT_HUMAN) {
628 error_report("This image format does not support checks");
629 }
630 ret = 63;
631 goto fail;
632 }
633
634 if (check->corruptions_fixed || check->leaks_fixed) {
635 int corruptions_fixed, leaks_fixed;
636
637 leaks_fixed = check->leaks_fixed;
638 corruptions_fixed = check->corruptions_fixed;
639
640 if (output_format == OFORMAT_HUMAN) {
641 qprintf(quiet,
642 "The following inconsistencies were found and repaired:\n\n"
643 " %" PRId64 " leaked clusters\n"
644 " %" PRId64 " corruptions\n\n"
645 "Double checking the fixed image now...\n",
646 check->leaks_fixed,
647 check->corruptions_fixed);
648 }
649
650 ret = collect_image_check(bs, check, filename, fmt, 0);
651
652 check->leaks_fixed = leaks_fixed;
653 check->corruptions_fixed = corruptions_fixed;
654 }
655
656 switch (output_format) {
657 case OFORMAT_HUMAN:
658 dump_human_image_check(check, quiet);
659 break;
660 case OFORMAT_JSON:
661 dump_json_image_check(check, quiet);
662 break;
663 }
664
665 if (ret || check->check_errors) {
666 ret = 1;
667 goto fail;
668 }
669
670 if (check->corruptions) {
671 ret = 2;
672 } else if (check->leaks) {
673 ret = 3;
674 } else {
675 ret = 0;
676 }
677
678 fail:
679 qapi_free_ImageCheck(check);
680 bdrv_unref(bs);
681
682 return ret;
683 }
684
685 static int img_commit(int argc, char **argv)
686 {
687 int c, ret, flags;
688 const char *filename, *fmt, *cache;
689 BlockDriverState *bs;
690 bool quiet = false;
691
692 fmt = NULL;
693 cache = BDRV_DEFAULT_CACHE;
694 for(;;) {
695 c = getopt(argc, argv, "f:ht:q");
696 if (c == -1) {
697 break;
698 }
699 switch(c) {
700 case '?':
701 case 'h':
702 help();
703 break;
704 case 'f':
705 fmt = optarg;
706 break;
707 case 't':
708 cache = optarg;
709 break;
710 case 'q':
711 quiet = true;
712 break;
713 }
714 }
715 if (optind != argc - 1) {
716 help();
717 }
718 filename = argv[optind++];
719
720 flags = BDRV_O_RDWR;
721 ret = bdrv_parse_cache_flags(cache, &flags);
722 if (ret < 0) {
723 error_report("Invalid cache option: %s", cache);
724 return -1;
725 }
726
727 bs = bdrv_new_open(filename, fmt, flags, true, quiet);
728 if (!bs) {
729 return 1;
730 }
731 ret = bdrv_commit(bs);
732 switch(ret) {
733 case 0:
734 qprintf(quiet, "Image committed.\n");
735 break;
736 case -ENOENT:
737 error_report("No disk inserted");
738 break;
739 case -EACCES:
740 error_report("Image is read-only");
741 break;
742 case -ENOTSUP:
743 error_report("Image is already committed");
744 break;
745 default:
746 error_report("Error while committing image");
747 break;
748 }
749
750 bdrv_unref(bs);
751 if (ret) {
752 return 1;
753 }
754 return 0;
755 }
756
757 /*
758 * Returns true iff the first sector pointed to by 'buf' contains at least
759 * a non-NUL byte.
760 *
761 * 'pnum' is set to the number of sectors (including and immediately following
762 * the first one) that are known to be in the same allocated/unallocated state.
763 */
764 static int is_allocated_sectors(const uint8_t *buf, int n, int *pnum)
765 {
766 bool is_zero;
767 int i;
768
769 if (n <= 0) {
770 *pnum = 0;
771 return 0;
772 }
773 is_zero = buffer_is_zero(buf, 512);
774 for(i = 1; i < n; i++) {
775 buf += 512;
776 if (is_zero != buffer_is_zero(buf, 512)) {
777 break;
778 }
779 }
780 *pnum = i;
781 return !is_zero;
782 }
783
784 /*
785 * Like is_allocated_sectors, but if the buffer starts with a used sector,
786 * up to 'min' consecutive sectors containing zeros are ignored. This avoids
787 * breaking up write requests for only small sparse areas.
788 */
789 static int is_allocated_sectors_min(const uint8_t *buf, int n, int *pnum,
790 int min)
791 {
792 int ret;
793 int num_checked, num_used;
794
795 if (n < min) {
796 min = n;
797 }
798
799 ret = is_allocated_sectors(buf, n, pnum);
800 if (!ret) {
801 return ret;
802 }
803
804 num_used = *pnum;
805 buf += BDRV_SECTOR_SIZE * *pnum;
806 n -= *pnum;
807 num_checked = num_used;
808
809 while (n > 0) {
810 ret = is_allocated_sectors(buf, n, pnum);
811
812 buf += BDRV_SECTOR_SIZE * *pnum;
813 n -= *pnum;
814 num_checked += *pnum;
815 if (ret) {
816 num_used = num_checked;
817 } else if (*pnum >= min) {
818 break;
819 }
820 }
821
822 *pnum = num_used;
823 return 1;
824 }
825
826 /*
827 * Compares two buffers sector by sector. Returns 0 if the first sector of both
828 * buffers matches, non-zero otherwise.
829 *
830 * pnum is set to the number of sectors (including and immediately following
831 * the first one) that are known to have the same comparison result
832 */
833 static int compare_sectors(const uint8_t *buf1, const uint8_t *buf2, int n,
834 int *pnum)
835 {
836 int res, i;
837
838 if (n <= 0) {
839 *pnum = 0;
840 return 0;
841 }
842
843 res = !!memcmp(buf1, buf2, 512);
844 for(i = 1; i < n; i++) {
845 buf1 += 512;
846 buf2 += 512;
847
848 if (!!memcmp(buf1, buf2, 512) != res) {
849 break;
850 }
851 }
852
853 *pnum = i;
854 return res;
855 }
856
857 #define IO_BUF_SIZE (2 * 1024 * 1024)
858
859 static int64_t sectors_to_bytes(int64_t sectors)
860 {
861 return sectors << BDRV_SECTOR_BITS;
862 }
863
864 static int64_t sectors_to_process(int64_t total, int64_t from)
865 {
866 return MIN(total - from, IO_BUF_SIZE >> BDRV_SECTOR_BITS);
867 }
868
869 /*
870 * Check if passed sectors are empty (not allocated or contain only 0 bytes)
871 *
872 * Returns 0 in case sectors are filled with 0, 1 if sectors contain non-zero
873 * data and negative value on error.
874 *
875 * @param bs: Driver used for accessing file
876 * @param sect_num: Number of first sector to check
877 * @param sect_count: Number of sectors to check
878 * @param filename: Name of disk file we are checking (logging purpose)
879 * @param buffer: Allocated buffer for storing read data
880 * @param quiet: Flag for quiet mode
881 */
882 static int check_empty_sectors(BlockDriverState *bs, int64_t sect_num,
883 int sect_count, const char *filename,
884 uint8_t *buffer, bool quiet)
885 {
886 int pnum, ret = 0;
887 ret = bdrv_read(bs, sect_num, buffer, sect_count);
888 if (ret < 0) {
889 error_report("Error while reading offset %" PRId64 " of %s: %s",
890 sectors_to_bytes(sect_num), filename, strerror(-ret));
891 return ret;
892 }
893 ret = is_allocated_sectors(buffer, sect_count, &pnum);
894 if (ret || pnum != sect_count) {
895 qprintf(quiet, "Content mismatch at offset %" PRId64 "!\n",
896 sectors_to_bytes(ret ? sect_num : sect_num + pnum));
897 return 1;
898 }
899
900 return 0;
901 }
902
903 /*
904 * Compares two images. Exit codes:
905 *
906 * 0 - Images are identical
907 * 1 - Images differ
908 * >1 - Error occurred
909 */
910 static int img_compare(int argc, char **argv)
911 {
912 const char *fmt1 = NULL, *fmt2 = NULL, *filename1, *filename2;
913 BlockDriverState *bs1, *bs2;
914 int64_t total_sectors1, total_sectors2;
915 uint8_t *buf1 = NULL, *buf2 = NULL;
916 int pnum1, pnum2;
917 int allocated1, allocated2;
918 int ret = 0; /* return value - 0 Ident, 1 Different, >1 Error */
919 bool progress = false, quiet = false, strict = false;
920 int64_t total_sectors;
921 int64_t sector_num = 0;
922 int64_t nb_sectors;
923 int c, pnum;
924 uint64_t bs_sectors;
925 uint64_t progress_base;
926
927 for (;;) {
928 c = getopt(argc, argv, "hpf:F:sq");
929 if (c == -1) {
930 break;
931 }
932 switch (c) {
933 case '?':
934 case 'h':
935 help();
936 break;
937 case 'f':
938 fmt1 = optarg;
939 break;
940 case 'F':
941 fmt2 = optarg;
942 break;
943 case 'p':
944 progress = true;
945 break;
946 case 'q':
947 quiet = true;
948 break;
949 case 's':
950 strict = true;
951 break;
952 }
953 }
954
955 /* Progress is not shown in Quiet mode */
956 if (quiet) {
957 progress = false;
958 }
959
960
961 if (optind != argc - 2) {
962 help();
963 }
964 filename1 = argv[optind++];
965 filename2 = argv[optind++];
966
967 /* Initialize before goto out */
968 qemu_progress_init(progress, 2.0);
969
970 bs1 = bdrv_new_open(filename1, fmt1, BDRV_O_FLAGS, true, quiet);
971 if (!bs1) {
972 error_report("Can't open file %s", filename1);
973 ret = 2;
974 goto out3;
975 }
976
977 bs2 = bdrv_new_open(filename2, fmt2, BDRV_O_FLAGS, true, quiet);
978 if (!bs2) {
979 error_report("Can't open file %s", filename2);
980 ret = 2;
981 goto out2;
982 }
983
984 buf1 = qemu_blockalign(bs1, IO_BUF_SIZE);
985 buf2 = qemu_blockalign(bs2, IO_BUF_SIZE);
986 bdrv_get_geometry(bs1, &bs_sectors);
987 total_sectors1 = bs_sectors;
988 bdrv_get_geometry(bs2, &bs_sectors);
989 total_sectors2 = bs_sectors;
990 total_sectors = MIN(total_sectors1, total_sectors2);
991 progress_base = MAX(total_sectors1, total_sectors2);
992
993 qemu_progress_print(0, 100);
994
995 if (strict && total_sectors1 != total_sectors2) {
996 ret = 1;
997 qprintf(quiet, "Strict mode: Image size mismatch!\n");
998 goto out;
999 }
1000
1001 for (;;) {
1002 nb_sectors = sectors_to_process(total_sectors, sector_num);
1003 if (nb_sectors <= 0) {
1004 break;
1005 }
1006 allocated1 = bdrv_is_allocated_above(bs1, NULL, sector_num, nb_sectors,
1007 &pnum1);
1008 if (allocated1 < 0) {
1009 ret = 3;
1010 error_report("Sector allocation test failed for %s", filename1);
1011 goto out;
1012 }
1013
1014 allocated2 = bdrv_is_allocated_above(bs2, NULL, sector_num, nb_sectors,
1015 &pnum2);
1016 if (allocated2 < 0) {
1017 ret = 3;
1018 error_report("Sector allocation test failed for %s", filename2);
1019 goto out;
1020 }
1021 nb_sectors = MIN(pnum1, pnum2);
1022
1023 if (allocated1 == allocated2) {
1024 if (allocated1) {
1025 ret = bdrv_read(bs1, sector_num, buf1, nb_sectors);
1026 if (ret < 0) {
1027 error_report("Error while reading offset %" PRId64 " of %s:"
1028 " %s", sectors_to_bytes(sector_num), filename1,
1029 strerror(-ret));
1030 ret = 4;
1031 goto out;
1032 }
1033 ret = bdrv_read(bs2, sector_num, buf2, nb_sectors);
1034 if (ret < 0) {
1035 error_report("Error while reading offset %" PRId64
1036 " of %s: %s", sectors_to_bytes(sector_num),
1037 filename2, strerror(-ret));
1038 ret = 4;
1039 goto out;
1040 }
1041 ret = compare_sectors(buf1, buf2, nb_sectors, &pnum);
1042 if (ret || pnum != nb_sectors) {
1043 qprintf(quiet, "Content mismatch at offset %" PRId64 "!\n",
1044 sectors_to_bytes(
1045 ret ? sector_num : sector_num + pnum));
1046 ret = 1;
1047 goto out;
1048 }
1049 }
1050 } else {
1051 if (strict) {
1052 ret = 1;
1053 qprintf(quiet, "Strict mode: Offset %" PRId64
1054 " allocation mismatch!\n",
1055 sectors_to_bytes(sector_num));
1056 goto out;
1057 }
1058
1059 if (allocated1) {
1060 ret = check_empty_sectors(bs1, sector_num, nb_sectors,
1061 filename1, buf1, quiet);
1062 } else {
1063 ret = check_empty_sectors(bs2, sector_num, nb_sectors,
1064 filename2, buf1, quiet);
1065 }
1066 if (ret) {
1067 if (ret < 0) {
1068 error_report("Error while reading offset %" PRId64 ": %s",
1069 sectors_to_bytes(sector_num), strerror(-ret));
1070 ret = 4;
1071 }
1072 goto out;
1073 }
1074 }
1075 sector_num += nb_sectors;
1076 qemu_progress_print(((float) nb_sectors / progress_base)*100, 100);
1077 }
1078
1079 if (total_sectors1 != total_sectors2) {
1080 BlockDriverState *bs_over;
1081 int64_t total_sectors_over;
1082 const char *filename_over;
1083
1084 qprintf(quiet, "Warning: Image size mismatch!\n");
1085 if (total_sectors1 > total_sectors2) {
1086 total_sectors_over = total_sectors1;
1087 bs_over = bs1;
1088 filename_over = filename1;
1089 } else {
1090 total_sectors_over = total_sectors2;
1091 bs_over = bs2;
1092 filename_over = filename2;
1093 }
1094
1095 for (;;) {
1096 nb_sectors = sectors_to_process(total_sectors_over, sector_num);
1097 if (nb_sectors <= 0) {
1098 break;
1099 }
1100 ret = bdrv_is_allocated_above(bs_over, NULL, sector_num,
1101 nb_sectors, &pnum);
1102 if (ret < 0) {
1103 ret = 3;
1104 error_report("Sector allocation test failed for %s",
1105 filename_over);
1106 goto out;
1107
1108 }
1109 nb_sectors = pnum;
1110 if (ret) {
1111 ret = check_empty_sectors(bs_over, sector_num, nb_sectors,
1112 filename_over, buf1, quiet);
1113 if (ret) {
1114 if (ret < 0) {
1115 error_report("Error while reading offset %" PRId64
1116 " of %s: %s", sectors_to_bytes(sector_num),
1117 filename_over, strerror(-ret));
1118 ret = 4;
1119 }
1120 goto out;
1121 }
1122 }
1123 sector_num += nb_sectors;
1124 qemu_progress_print(((float) nb_sectors / progress_base)*100, 100);
1125 }
1126 }
1127
1128 qprintf(quiet, "Images are identical.\n");
1129 ret = 0;
1130
1131 out:
1132 bdrv_unref(bs2);
1133 qemu_vfree(buf1);
1134 qemu_vfree(buf2);
1135 out2:
1136 bdrv_unref(bs1);
1137 out3:
1138 qemu_progress_end();
1139 return ret;
1140 }
1141
1142 static int img_convert(int argc, char **argv)
1143 {
1144 int c, n, n1, bs_n, bs_i, compress, cluster_sectors, skip_create;
1145 int64_t ret = 0;
1146 int progress = 0, flags;
1147 const char *fmt, *out_fmt, *cache, *out_baseimg, *out_filename;
1148 BlockDriver *drv, *proto_drv;
1149 BlockDriverState **bs = NULL, *out_bs = NULL;
1150 int64_t total_sectors, nb_sectors, sector_num, bs_offset;
1151 uint64_t bs_sectors;
1152 uint8_t * buf = NULL;
1153 size_t bufsectors = IO_BUF_SIZE / BDRV_SECTOR_SIZE;
1154 const uint8_t *buf1;
1155 BlockDriverInfo bdi;
1156 QEMUOptionParameter *param = NULL, *create_options = NULL;
1157 QEMUOptionParameter *out_baseimg_param;
1158 char *options = NULL;
1159 const char *snapshot_name = NULL;
1160 int min_sparse = 8; /* Need at least 4k of zeros for sparse detection */
1161 bool quiet = false;
1162 Error *local_err = NULL;
1163 QemuOpts *sn_opts = NULL;
1164
1165 fmt = NULL;
1166 out_fmt = "raw";
1167 cache = "unsafe";
1168 out_baseimg = NULL;
1169 compress = 0;
1170 skip_create = 0;
1171 for(;;) {
1172 c = getopt(argc, argv, "f:O:B:s:hce6o:pS:t:qnl:");
1173 if (c == -1) {
1174 break;
1175 }
1176 switch(c) {
1177 case '?':
1178 case 'h':
1179 help();
1180 break;
1181 case 'f':
1182 fmt = optarg;
1183 break;
1184 case 'O':
1185 out_fmt = optarg;
1186 break;
1187 case 'B':
1188 out_baseimg = optarg;
1189 break;
1190 case 'c':
1191 compress = 1;
1192 break;
1193 case 'e':
1194 error_report("option -e is deprecated, please use \'-o "
1195 "encryption\' instead!");
1196 ret = -1;
1197 goto fail_getopt;
1198 case '6':
1199 error_report("option -6 is deprecated, please use \'-o "
1200 "compat6\' instead!");
1201 ret = -1;
1202 goto fail_getopt;
1203 case 'o':
1204 if (!is_valid_option_list(optarg)) {
1205 error_report("Invalid option list: %s", optarg);
1206 ret = -1;
1207 goto fail_getopt;
1208 }
1209 if (!options) {
1210 options = g_strdup(optarg);
1211 } else {
1212 char *old_options = options;
1213 options = g_strdup_printf("%s,%s", options, optarg);
1214 g_free(old_options);
1215 }
1216 break;
1217 case 's':
1218 snapshot_name = optarg;
1219 break;
1220 case 'l':
1221 if (strstart(optarg, SNAPSHOT_OPT_BASE, NULL)) {
1222 sn_opts = qemu_opts_parse(&internal_snapshot_opts, optarg, 0);
1223 if (!sn_opts) {
1224 error_report("Failed in parsing snapshot param '%s'",
1225 optarg);
1226 ret = -1;
1227 goto fail_getopt;
1228 }
1229 } else {
1230 snapshot_name = optarg;
1231 }
1232 break;
1233 case 'S':
1234 {
1235 int64_t sval;
1236 char *end;
1237 sval = strtosz_suffix(optarg, &end, STRTOSZ_DEFSUFFIX_B);
1238 if (sval < 0 || *end) {
1239 error_report("Invalid minimum zero buffer size for sparse output specified");
1240 ret = -1;
1241 goto fail_getopt;
1242 }
1243
1244 min_sparse = sval / BDRV_SECTOR_SIZE;
1245 break;
1246 }
1247 case 'p':
1248 progress = 1;
1249 break;
1250 case 't':
1251 cache = optarg;
1252 break;
1253 case 'q':
1254 quiet = true;
1255 break;
1256 case 'n':
1257 skip_create = 1;
1258 break;
1259 }
1260 }
1261
1262 /* Initialize before goto out */
1263 if (quiet) {
1264 progress = 0;
1265 }
1266 qemu_progress_init(progress, 1.0);
1267
1268
1269 bs_n = argc - optind - 1;
1270 out_filename = bs_n >= 1 ? argv[argc - 1] : NULL;
1271
1272 if (options && has_help_option(options)) {
1273 ret = print_block_option_help(out_filename, out_fmt);
1274 goto out;
1275 }
1276
1277 if (bs_n < 1) {
1278 help();
1279 }
1280
1281
1282 if (bs_n > 1 && out_baseimg) {
1283 error_report("-B makes no sense when concatenating multiple input "
1284 "images");
1285 ret = -1;
1286 goto out;
1287 }
1288
1289 qemu_progress_print(0, 100);
1290
1291 bs = g_malloc0(bs_n * sizeof(BlockDriverState *));
1292
1293 total_sectors = 0;
1294 for (bs_i = 0; bs_i < bs_n; bs_i++) {
1295 bs[bs_i] = bdrv_new_open(argv[optind + bs_i], fmt, BDRV_O_FLAGS, true,
1296 quiet);
1297 if (!bs[bs_i]) {
1298 error_report("Could not open '%s'", argv[optind + bs_i]);
1299 ret = -1;
1300 goto out;
1301 }
1302 bdrv_get_geometry(bs[bs_i], &bs_sectors);
1303 total_sectors += bs_sectors;
1304 }
1305
1306 if (sn_opts) {
1307 ret = bdrv_snapshot_load_tmp(bs[0],
1308 qemu_opt_get(sn_opts, SNAPSHOT_OPT_ID),
1309 qemu_opt_get(sn_opts, SNAPSHOT_OPT_NAME),
1310 &local_err);
1311 } else if (snapshot_name != NULL) {
1312 if (bs_n > 1) {
1313 error_report("No support for concatenating multiple snapshot");
1314 ret = -1;
1315 goto out;
1316 }
1317
1318 bdrv_snapshot_load_tmp_by_id_or_name(bs[0], snapshot_name, &local_err);
1319 }
1320 if (local_err) {
1321 error_report("Failed to load snapshot: %s",
1322 error_get_pretty(local_err));
1323 error_free(local_err);
1324 ret = -1;
1325 goto out;
1326 }
1327
1328 /* Find driver and parse its options */
1329 drv = bdrv_find_format(out_fmt);
1330 if (!drv) {
1331 error_report("Unknown file format '%s'", out_fmt);
1332 ret = -1;
1333 goto out;
1334 }
1335
1336 proto_drv = bdrv_find_protocol(out_filename, true);
1337 if (!proto_drv) {
1338 error_report("Unknown protocol '%s'", out_filename);
1339 ret = -1;
1340 goto out;
1341 }
1342
1343 create_options = append_option_parameters(create_options,
1344 drv->create_options);
1345 create_options = append_option_parameters(create_options,
1346 proto_drv->create_options);
1347
1348 if (options) {
1349 param = parse_option_parameters(options, create_options, param);
1350 if (param == NULL) {
1351 error_report("Invalid options for file format '%s'.", out_fmt);
1352 ret = -1;
1353 goto out;
1354 }
1355 } else {
1356 param = parse_option_parameters("", create_options, param);
1357 }
1358
1359 set_option_parameter_int(param, BLOCK_OPT_SIZE, total_sectors * 512);
1360 ret = add_old_style_options(out_fmt, param, out_baseimg, NULL);
1361 if (ret < 0) {
1362 goto out;
1363 }
1364
1365 /* Get backing file name if -o backing_file was used */
1366 out_baseimg_param = get_option_parameter(param, BLOCK_OPT_BACKING_FILE);
1367 if (out_baseimg_param) {
1368 out_baseimg = out_baseimg_param->value.s;
1369 }
1370
1371 /* Check if compression is supported */
1372 if (compress) {
1373 QEMUOptionParameter *encryption =
1374 get_option_parameter(param, BLOCK_OPT_ENCRYPT);
1375 QEMUOptionParameter *preallocation =
1376 get_option_parameter(param, BLOCK_OPT_PREALLOC);
1377
1378 if (!drv->bdrv_write_compressed) {
1379 error_report("Compression not supported for this file format");
1380 ret = -1;
1381 goto out;
1382 }
1383
1384 if (encryption && encryption->value.n) {
1385 error_report("Compression and encryption not supported at "
1386 "the same time");
1387 ret = -1;
1388 goto out;
1389 }
1390
1391 if (preallocation && preallocation->value.s
1392 && strcmp(preallocation->value.s, "off"))
1393 {
1394 error_report("Compression and preallocation not supported at "
1395 "the same time");
1396 ret = -1;
1397 goto out;
1398 }
1399 }
1400
1401 if (!skip_create) {
1402 /* Create the new image */
1403 ret = bdrv_create(drv, out_filename, param, &local_err);
1404 if (ret < 0) {
1405 error_report("%s: error while converting %s: %s",
1406 out_filename, out_fmt, error_get_pretty(local_err));
1407 error_free(local_err);
1408 goto out;
1409 }
1410 }
1411
1412 flags = min_sparse ? (BDRV_O_RDWR | BDRV_O_UNMAP) : BDRV_O_RDWR;
1413 ret = bdrv_parse_cache_flags(cache, &flags);
1414 if (ret < 0) {
1415 error_report("Invalid cache option: %s", cache);
1416 return -1;
1417 }
1418
1419 out_bs = bdrv_new_open(out_filename, out_fmt, flags, true, quiet);
1420 if (!out_bs) {
1421 ret = -1;
1422 goto out;
1423 }
1424
1425 bs_i = 0;
1426 bs_offset = 0;
1427 bdrv_get_geometry(bs[0], &bs_sectors);
1428
1429 /* increase bufsectors from the default 4096 (2M) if opt_transfer_length
1430 * or discard_alignment of the out_bs is greater. Limit to 32768 (16MB)
1431 * as maximum. */
1432 bufsectors = MIN(32768,
1433 MAX(bufsectors, MAX(out_bs->bl.opt_transfer_length,
1434 out_bs->bl.discard_alignment))
1435 );
1436
1437 buf = qemu_blockalign(out_bs, bufsectors * BDRV_SECTOR_SIZE);
1438
1439 if (skip_create) {
1440 int64_t output_length = bdrv_getlength(out_bs);
1441 if (output_length < 0) {
1442 error_report("unable to get output image length: %s\n",
1443 strerror(-output_length));
1444 ret = -1;
1445 goto out;
1446 } else if (output_length < total_sectors << BDRV_SECTOR_BITS) {
1447 error_report("output file is smaller than input file");
1448 ret = -1;
1449 goto out;
1450 }
1451 }
1452
1453 cluster_sectors = 0;
1454 ret = bdrv_get_info(out_bs, &bdi);
1455 if (ret < 0) {
1456 if (compress) {
1457 error_report("could not get block driver info");
1458 goto out;
1459 }
1460 } else {
1461 cluster_sectors = bdi.cluster_size / BDRV_SECTOR_SIZE;
1462 }
1463
1464 if (compress) {
1465 if (cluster_sectors <= 0 || cluster_sectors > bufsectors) {
1466 error_report("invalid cluster size");
1467 ret = -1;
1468 goto out;
1469 }
1470 sector_num = 0;
1471
1472 nb_sectors = total_sectors;
1473
1474 for(;;) {
1475 int64_t bs_num;
1476 int remainder;
1477 uint8_t *buf2;
1478
1479 nb_sectors = total_sectors - sector_num;
1480 if (nb_sectors <= 0)
1481 break;
1482 if (nb_sectors >= cluster_sectors)
1483 n = cluster_sectors;
1484 else
1485 n = nb_sectors;
1486
1487 bs_num = sector_num - bs_offset;
1488 assert (bs_num >= 0);
1489 remainder = n;
1490 buf2 = buf;
1491 while (remainder > 0) {
1492 int nlow;
1493 while (bs_num == bs_sectors) {
1494 bs_i++;
1495 assert (bs_i < bs_n);
1496 bs_offset += bs_sectors;
1497 bdrv_get_geometry(bs[bs_i], &bs_sectors);
1498 bs_num = 0;
1499 /* printf("changing part: sector_num=%" PRId64 ", "
1500 "bs_i=%d, bs_offset=%" PRId64 ", bs_sectors=%" PRId64
1501 "\n", sector_num, bs_i, bs_offset, bs_sectors); */
1502 }
1503 assert (bs_num < bs_sectors);
1504
1505 nlow = (remainder > bs_sectors - bs_num) ? bs_sectors - bs_num : remainder;
1506
1507 ret = bdrv_read(bs[bs_i], bs_num, buf2, nlow);
1508 if (ret < 0) {
1509 error_report("error while reading sector %" PRId64 ": %s",
1510 bs_num, strerror(-ret));
1511 goto out;
1512 }
1513
1514 buf2 += nlow * 512;
1515 bs_num += nlow;
1516
1517 remainder -= nlow;
1518 }
1519 assert (remainder == 0);
1520
1521 if (!buffer_is_zero(buf, n * BDRV_SECTOR_SIZE)) {
1522 ret = bdrv_write_compressed(out_bs, sector_num, buf, n);
1523 if (ret != 0) {
1524 error_report("error while compressing sector %" PRId64
1525 ": %s", sector_num, strerror(-ret));
1526 goto out;
1527 }
1528 }
1529 sector_num += n;
1530 qemu_progress_print(100.0 * sector_num / total_sectors, 0);
1531 }
1532 /* signal EOF to align */
1533 bdrv_write_compressed(out_bs, 0, NULL, 0);
1534 } else {
1535 int64_t sectors_to_read, sectors_read, sector_num_next_status;
1536 bool count_allocated_sectors;
1537 int has_zero_init = min_sparse ? bdrv_has_zero_init(out_bs) : 0;
1538
1539 if (!has_zero_init && bdrv_can_write_zeroes_with_unmap(out_bs)) {
1540 ret = bdrv_make_zero(out_bs, BDRV_REQ_MAY_UNMAP);
1541 if (ret < 0) {
1542 goto out;
1543 }
1544 has_zero_init = 1;
1545 }
1546
1547 sectors_to_read = total_sectors;
1548 count_allocated_sectors = progress && (out_baseimg || has_zero_init);
1549 restart:
1550 sector_num = 0; // total number of sectors converted so far
1551 sectors_read = 0;
1552 sector_num_next_status = 0;
1553
1554 for(;;) {
1555 nb_sectors = total_sectors - sector_num;
1556 if (nb_sectors <= 0) {
1557 if (count_allocated_sectors) {
1558 sectors_to_read = sectors_read;
1559 count_allocated_sectors = false;
1560 goto restart;
1561 }
1562 ret = 0;
1563 break;
1564 }
1565
1566 while (sector_num - bs_offset >= bs_sectors) {
1567 bs_i ++;
1568 assert (bs_i < bs_n);
1569 bs_offset += bs_sectors;
1570 bdrv_get_geometry(bs[bs_i], &bs_sectors);
1571 /* printf("changing part: sector_num=%" PRId64 ", bs_i=%d, "
1572 "bs_offset=%" PRId64 ", bs_sectors=%" PRId64 "\n",
1573 sector_num, bs_i, bs_offset, bs_sectors); */
1574 }
1575
1576 if ((out_baseimg || has_zero_init) &&
1577 sector_num >= sector_num_next_status) {
1578 n = nb_sectors > INT_MAX ? INT_MAX : nb_sectors;
1579 ret = bdrv_get_block_status(bs[bs_i], sector_num - bs_offset,
1580 n, &n1);
1581 if (ret < 0) {
1582 error_report("error while reading block status of sector %"
1583 PRId64 ": %s", sector_num - bs_offset,
1584 strerror(-ret));
1585 goto out;
1586 }
1587 /* If the output image is zero initialized, we are not working
1588 * on a shared base and the input is zero we can skip the next
1589 * n1 sectors */
1590 if (has_zero_init && !out_baseimg && (ret & BDRV_BLOCK_ZERO)) {
1591 sector_num += n1;
1592 continue;
1593 }
1594 /* If the output image is being created as a copy on write
1595 * image, assume that sectors which are unallocated in the
1596 * input image are present in both the output's and input's
1597 * base images (no need to copy them). */
1598 if (out_baseimg) {
1599 if (!(ret & BDRV_BLOCK_DATA)) {
1600 sector_num += n1;
1601 continue;
1602 }
1603 /* The next 'n1' sectors are allocated in the input image.
1604 * Copy only those as they may be followed by unallocated
1605 * sectors. */
1606 nb_sectors = n1;
1607 }
1608 /* avoid redundant callouts to get_block_status */
1609 sector_num_next_status = sector_num + n1;
1610 }
1611
1612 n = MIN(nb_sectors, bufsectors);
1613
1614 /* round down request length to an aligned sector, but
1615 * do not bother doing this on short requests. They happen
1616 * when we found an all-zero area, and the next sector to
1617 * write will not be sector_num + n. */
1618 if (cluster_sectors > 0 && n >= cluster_sectors) {
1619 int64_t next_aligned_sector = (sector_num + n);
1620 next_aligned_sector -= next_aligned_sector % cluster_sectors;
1621 if (sector_num + n > next_aligned_sector) {
1622 n = next_aligned_sector - sector_num;
1623 }
1624 }
1625
1626 n = MIN(n, bs_sectors - (sector_num - bs_offset));
1627
1628 sectors_read += n;
1629 if (count_allocated_sectors) {
1630 sector_num += n;
1631 continue;
1632 }
1633
1634 n1 = n;
1635 ret = bdrv_read(bs[bs_i], sector_num - bs_offset, buf, n);
1636 if (ret < 0) {
1637 error_report("error while reading sector %" PRId64 ": %s",
1638 sector_num - bs_offset, strerror(-ret));
1639 goto out;
1640 }
1641 /* NOTE: at the same time we convert, we do not write zero
1642 sectors to have a chance to compress the image. Ideally, we
1643 should add a specific call to have the info to go faster */
1644 buf1 = buf;
1645 while (n > 0) {
1646 if (!has_zero_init ||
1647 is_allocated_sectors_min(buf1, n, &n1, min_sparse)) {
1648 ret = bdrv_write(out_bs, sector_num, buf1, n1);
1649 if (ret < 0) {
1650 error_report("error while writing sector %" PRId64
1651 ": %s", sector_num, strerror(-ret));
1652 goto out;
1653 }
1654 }
1655 sector_num += n1;
1656 n -= n1;
1657 buf1 += n1 * 512;
1658 }
1659 qemu_progress_print(100.0 * sectors_read / sectors_to_read, 0);
1660 }
1661 }
1662 out:
1663 if (!ret) {
1664 qemu_progress_print(100, 0);
1665 }
1666 qemu_progress_end();
1667 free_option_parameters(create_options);
1668 free_option_parameters(param);
1669 qemu_vfree(buf);
1670 if (sn_opts) {
1671 qemu_opts_del(sn_opts);
1672 }
1673 if (out_bs) {
1674 bdrv_unref(out_bs);
1675 }
1676 if (bs) {
1677 for (bs_i = 0; bs_i < bs_n; bs_i++) {
1678 if (bs[bs_i]) {
1679 bdrv_unref(bs[bs_i]);
1680 }
1681 }
1682 g_free(bs);
1683 }
1684 fail_getopt:
1685 g_free(options);
1686
1687 if (ret) {
1688 return 1;
1689 }
1690 return 0;
1691 }
1692
1693
1694 static void dump_snapshots(BlockDriverState *bs)
1695 {
1696 QEMUSnapshotInfo *sn_tab, *sn;
1697 int nb_sns, i;
1698
1699 nb_sns = bdrv_snapshot_list(bs, &sn_tab);
1700 if (nb_sns <= 0)
1701 return;
1702 printf("Snapshot list:\n");
1703 bdrv_snapshot_dump(fprintf, stdout, NULL);
1704 printf("\n");
1705 for(i = 0; i < nb_sns; i++) {
1706 sn = &sn_tab[i];
1707 bdrv_snapshot_dump(fprintf, stdout, sn);
1708 printf("\n");
1709 }
1710 g_free(sn_tab);
1711 }
1712
1713 static void dump_json_image_info_list(ImageInfoList *list)
1714 {
1715 Error *errp = NULL;
1716 QString *str;
1717 QmpOutputVisitor *ov = qmp_output_visitor_new();
1718 QObject *obj;
1719 visit_type_ImageInfoList(qmp_output_get_visitor(ov),
1720 &list, NULL, &errp);
1721 obj = qmp_output_get_qobject(ov);
1722 str = qobject_to_json_pretty(obj);
1723 assert(str != NULL);
1724 printf("%s\n", qstring_get_str(str));
1725 qobject_decref(obj);
1726 qmp_output_visitor_cleanup(ov);
1727 QDECREF(str);
1728 }
1729
1730 static void dump_json_image_info(ImageInfo *info)
1731 {
1732 Error *errp = NULL;
1733 QString *str;
1734 QmpOutputVisitor *ov = qmp_output_visitor_new();
1735 QObject *obj;
1736 visit_type_ImageInfo(qmp_output_get_visitor(ov),
1737 &info, NULL, &errp);
1738 obj = qmp_output_get_qobject(ov);
1739 str = qobject_to_json_pretty(obj);
1740 assert(str != NULL);
1741 printf("%s\n", qstring_get_str(str));
1742 qobject_decref(obj);
1743 qmp_output_visitor_cleanup(ov);
1744 QDECREF(str);
1745 }
1746
1747 static void dump_human_image_info_list(ImageInfoList *list)
1748 {
1749 ImageInfoList *elem;
1750 bool delim = false;
1751
1752 for (elem = list; elem; elem = elem->next) {
1753 if (delim) {
1754 printf("\n");
1755 }
1756 delim = true;
1757
1758 bdrv_image_info_dump(fprintf, stdout, elem->value);
1759 }
1760 }
1761
1762 static gboolean str_equal_func(gconstpointer a, gconstpointer b)
1763 {
1764 return strcmp(a, b) == 0;
1765 }
1766
1767 /**
1768 * Open an image file chain and return an ImageInfoList
1769 *
1770 * @filename: topmost image filename
1771 * @fmt: topmost image format (may be NULL to autodetect)
1772 * @chain: true - enumerate entire backing file chain
1773 * false - only topmost image file
1774 *
1775 * Returns a list of ImageInfo objects or NULL if there was an error opening an
1776 * image file. If there was an error a message will have been printed to
1777 * stderr.
1778 */
1779 static ImageInfoList *collect_image_info_list(const char *filename,
1780 const char *fmt,
1781 bool chain)
1782 {
1783 ImageInfoList *head = NULL;
1784 ImageInfoList **last = &head;
1785 GHashTable *filenames;
1786 Error *err = NULL;
1787
1788 filenames = g_hash_table_new_full(g_str_hash, str_equal_func, NULL, NULL);
1789
1790 while (filename) {
1791 BlockDriverState *bs;
1792 ImageInfo *info;
1793 ImageInfoList *elem;
1794
1795 if (g_hash_table_lookup_extended(filenames, filename, NULL, NULL)) {
1796 error_report("Backing file '%s' creates an infinite loop.",
1797 filename);
1798 goto err;
1799 }
1800 g_hash_table_insert(filenames, (gpointer)filename, NULL);
1801
1802 bs = bdrv_new_open(filename, fmt, BDRV_O_FLAGS | BDRV_O_NO_BACKING,
1803 false, false);
1804 if (!bs) {
1805 goto err;
1806 }
1807
1808 bdrv_query_image_info(bs, &info, &err);
1809 if (err) {
1810 error_report("%s", error_get_pretty(err));
1811 error_free(err);
1812 goto err;
1813 }
1814
1815 elem = g_new0(ImageInfoList, 1);
1816 elem->value = info;
1817 *last = elem;
1818 last = &elem->next;
1819
1820 bdrv_unref(bs);
1821
1822 filename = fmt = NULL;
1823 if (chain) {
1824 if (info->has_full_backing_filename) {
1825 filename = info->full_backing_filename;
1826 } else if (info->has_backing_filename) {
1827 filename = info->backing_filename;
1828 }
1829 if (info->has_backing_filename_format) {
1830 fmt = info->backing_filename_format;
1831 }
1832 }
1833 }
1834 g_hash_table_destroy(filenames);
1835 return head;
1836
1837 err:
1838 qapi_free_ImageInfoList(head);
1839 g_hash_table_destroy(filenames);
1840 return NULL;
1841 }
1842
1843 static int img_info(int argc, char **argv)
1844 {
1845 int c;
1846 OutputFormat output_format = OFORMAT_HUMAN;
1847 bool chain = false;
1848 const char *filename, *fmt, *output;
1849 ImageInfoList *list;
1850
1851 fmt = NULL;
1852 output = NULL;
1853 for(;;) {
1854 int option_index = 0;
1855 static const struct option long_options[] = {
1856 {"help", no_argument, 0, 'h'},
1857 {"format", required_argument, 0, 'f'},
1858 {"output", required_argument, 0, OPTION_OUTPUT},
1859 {"backing-chain", no_argument, 0, OPTION_BACKING_CHAIN},
1860 {0, 0, 0, 0}
1861 };
1862 c = getopt_long(argc, argv, "f:h",
1863 long_options, &option_index);
1864 if (c == -1) {
1865 break;
1866 }
1867 switch(c) {
1868 case '?':
1869 case 'h':
1870 help();
1871 break;
1872 case 'f':
1873 fmt = optarg;
1874 break;
1875 case OPTION_OUTPUT:
1876 output = optarg;
1877 break;
1878 case OPTION_BACKING_CHAIN:
1879 chain = true;
1880 break;
1881 }
1882 }
1883 if (optind != argc - 1) {
1884 help();
1885 }
1886 filename = argv[optind++];
1887
1888 if (output && !strcmp(output, "json")) {
1889 output_format = OFORMAT_JSON;
1890 } else if (output && !strcmp(output, "human")) {
1891 output_format = OFORMAT_HUMAN;
1892 } else if (output) {
1893 error_report("--output must be used with human or json as argument.");
1894 return 1;
1895 }
1896
1897 list = collect_image_info_list(filename, fmt, chain);
1898 if (!list) {
1899 return 1;
1900 }
1901
1902 switch (output_format) {
1903 case OFORMAT_HUMAN:
1904 dump_human_image_info_list(list);
1905 break;
1906 case OFORMAT_JSON:
1907 if (chain) {
1908 dump_json_image_info_list(list);
1909 } else {
1910 dump_json_image_info(list->value);
1911 }
1912 break;
1913 }
1914
1915 qapi_free_ImageInfoList(list);
1916 return 0;
1917 }
1918
1919
1920 typedef struct MapEntry {
1921 int flags;
1922 int depth;
1923 int64_t start;
1924 int64_t length;
1925 int64_t offset;
1926 BlockDriverState *bs;
1927 } MapEntry;
1928
1929 static void dump_map_entry(OutputFormat output_format, MapEntry *e,
1930 MapEntry *next)
1931 {
1932 switch (output_format) {
1933 case OFORMAT_HUMAN:
1934 if ((e->flags & BDRV_BLOCK_DATA) &&
1935 !(e->flags & BDRV_BLOCK_OFFSET_VALID)) {
1936 error_report("File contains external, encrypted or compressed clusters.");
1937 exit(1);
1938 }
1939 if ((e->flags & (BDRV_BLOCK_DATA|BDRV_BLOCK_ZERO)) == BDRV_BLOCK_DATA) {
1940 printf("%#-16"PRIx64"%#-16"PRIx64"%#-16"PRIx64"%s\n",
1941 e->start, e->length, e->offset, e->bs->filename);
1942 }
1943 /* This format ignores the distinction between 0, ZERO and ZERO|DATA.
1944 * Modify the flags here to allow more coalescing.
1945 */
1946 if (next &&
1947 (next->flags & (BDRV_BLOCK_DATA|BDRV_BLOCK_ZERO)) != BDRV_BLOCK_DATA) {
1948 next->flags &= ~BDRV_BLOCK_DATA;
1949 next->flags |= BDRV_BLOCK_ZERO;
1950 }
1951 break;
1952 case OFORMAT_JSON:
1953 printf("%s{ \"start\": %"PRId64", \"length\": %"PRId64", \"depth\": %d,"
1954 " \"zero\": %s, \"data\": %s",
1955 (e->start == 0 ? "[" : ",\n"),
1956 e->start, e->length, e->depth,
1957 (e->flags & BDRV_BLOCK_ZERO) ? "true" : "false",
1958 (e->flags & BDRV_BLOCK_DATA) ? "true" : "false");
1959 if (e->flags & BDRV_BLOCK_OFFSET_VALID) {
1960 printf(", \"offset\": %"PRId64"", e->offset);
1961 }
1962 putchar('}');
1963
1964 if (!next) {
1965 printf("]\n");
1966 }
1967 break;
1968 }
1969 }
1970
1971 static int get_block_status(BlockDriverState *bs, int64_t sector_num,
1972 int nb_sectors, MapEntry *e)
1973 {
1974 int64_t ret;
1975 int depth;
1976
1977 /* As an optimization, we could cache the current range of unallocated
1978 * clusters in each file of the chain, and avoid querying the same
1979 * range repeatedly.
1980 */
1981
1982 depth = 0;
1983 for (;;) {
1984 ret = bdrv_get_block_status(bs, sector_num, nb_sectors, &nb_sectors);
1985 if (ret < 0) {
1986 return ret;
1987 }
1988 assert(nb_sectors);
1989 if (ret & (BDRV_BLOCK_ZERO|BDRV_BLOCK_DATA)) {
1990 break;
1991 }
1992 bs = bs->backing_hd;
1993 if (bs == NULL) {
1994 ret = 0;
1995 break;
1996 }
1997
1998 depth++;
1999 }
2000
2001 e->start = sector_num * BDRV_SECTOR_SIZE;
2002 e->length = nb_sectors * BDRV_SECTOR_SIZE;
2003 e->flags = ret & ~BDRV_BLOCK_OFFSET_MASK;
2004 e->offset = ret & BDRV_BLOCK_OFFSET_MASK;
2005 e->depth = depth;
2006 e->bs = bs;
2007 return 0;
2008 }
2009
2010 static int img_map(int argc, char **argv)
2011 {
2012 int c;
2013 OutputFormat output_format = OFORMAT_HUMAN;
2014 BlockDriverState *bs;
2015 const char *filename, *fmt, *output;
2016 int64_t length;
2017 MapEntry curr = { .length = 0 }, next;
2018 int ret = 0;
2019
2020 fmt = NULL;
2021 output = NULL;
2022 for (;;) {
2023 int option_index = 0;
2024 static const struct option long_options[] = {
2025 {"help", no_argument, 0, 'h'},
2026 {"format", required_argument, 0, 'f'},
2027 {"output", required_argument, 0, OPTION_OUTPUT},
2028 {0, 0, 0, 0}
2029 };
2030 c = getopt_long(argc, argv, "f:h",
2031 long_options, &option_index);
2032 if (c == -1) {
2033 break;
2034 }
2035 switch (c) {
2036 case '?':
2037 case 'h':
2038 help();
2039 break;
2040 case 'f':
2041 fmt = optarg;
2042 break;
2043 case OPTION_OUTPUT:
2044 output = optarg;
2045 break;
2046 }
2047 }
2048 if (optind >= argc) {
2049 help();
2050 }
2051 filename = argv[optind++];
2052
2053 if (output && !strcmp(output, "json")) {
2054 output_format = OFORMAT_JSON;
2055 } else if (output && !strcmp(output, "human")) {
2056 output_format = OFORMAT_HUMAN;
2057 } else if (output) {
2058 error_report("--output must be used with human or json as argument.");
2059 return 1;
2060 }
2061
2062 bs = bdrv_new_open(filename, fmt, BDRV_O_FLAGS, true, false);
2063 if (!bs) {
2064 return 1;
2065 }
2066
2067 if (output_format == OFORMAT_HUMAN) {
2068 printf("%-16s%-16s%-16s%s\n", "Offset", "Length", "Mapped to", "File");
2069 }
2070
2071 length = bdrv_getlength(bs);
2072 while (curr.start + curr.length < length) {
2073 int64_t nsectors_left;
2074 int64_t sector_num;
2075 int n;
2076
2077 sector_num = (curr.start + curr.length) >> BDRV_SECTOR_BITS;
2078
2079 /* Probe up to 1 GiB at a time. */
2080 nsectors_left = DIV_ROUND_UP(length, BDRV_SECTOR_SIZE) - sector_num;
2081 n = MIN(1 << (30 - BDRV_SECTOR_BITS), nsectors_left);
2082 ret = get_block_status(bs, sector_num, n, &next);
2083
2084 if (ret < 0) {
2085 error_report("Could not read file metadata: %s", strerror(-ret));
2086 goto out;
2087 }
2088
2089 if (curr.length != 0 && curr.flags == next.flags &&
2090 curr.depth == next.depth &&
2091 ((curr.flags & BDRV_BLOCK_OFFSET_VALID) == 0 ||
2092 curr.offset + curr.length == next.offset)) {
2093 curr.length += next.length;
2094 continue;
2095 }
2096
2097 if (curr.length > 0) {
2098 dump_map_entry(output_format, &curr, &next);
2099 }
2100 curr = next;
2101 }
2102
2103 dump_map_entry(output_format, &curr, NULL);
2104
2105 out:
2106 bdrv_unref(bs);
2107 return ret < 0;
2108 }
2109
2110 #define SNAPSHOT_LIST 1
2111 #define SNAPSHOT_CREATE 2
2112 #define SNAPSHOT_APPLY 3
2113 #define SNAPSHOT_DELETE 4
2114
2115 static int img_snapshot(int argc, char **argv)
2116 {
2117 BlockDriverState *bs;
2118 QEMUSnapshotInfo sn;
2119 char *filename, *snapshot_name = NULL;
2120 int c, ret = 0, bdrv_oflags;
2121 int action = 0;
2122 qemu_timeval tv;
2123 bool quiet = false;
2124 Error *err = NULL;
2125
2126 bdrv_oflags = BDRV_O_FLAGS | BDRV_O_RDWR;
2127 /* Parse commandline parameters */
2128 for(;;) {
2129 c = getopt(argc, argv, "la:c:d:hq");
2130 if (c == -1) {
2131 break;
2132 }
2133 switch(c) {
2134 case '?':
2135 case 'h':
2136 help();
2137 return 0;
2138 case 'l':
2139 if (action) {
2140 help();
2141 return 0;
2142 }
2143 action = SNAPSHOT_LIST;
2144 bdrv_oflags &= ~BDRV_O_RDWR; /* no need for RW */
2145 break;
2146 case 'a':
2147 if (action) {
2148 help();
2149 return 0;
2150 }
2151 action = SNAPSHOT_APPLY;
2152 snapshot_name = optarg;
2153 break;
2154 case 'c':
2155 if (action) {
2156 help();
2157 return 0;
2158 }
2159 action = SNAPSHOT_CREATE;
2160 snapshot_name = optarg;
2161 break;
2162 case 'd':
2163 if (action) {
2164 help();
2165 return 0;
2166 }
2167 action = SNAPSHOT_DELETE;
2168 snapshot_name = optarg;
2169 break;
2170 case 'q':
2171 quiet = true;
2172 break;
2173 }
2174 }
2175
2176 if (optind != argc - 1) {
2177 help();
2178 }
2179 filename = argv[optind++];
2180
2181 /* Open the image */
2182 bs = bdrv_new_open(filename, NULL, bdrv_oflags, true, quiet);
2183 if (!bs) {
2184 return 1;
2185 }
2186
2187 /* Perform the requested action */
2188 switch(action) {
2189 case SNAPSHOT_LIST:
2190 dump_snapshots(bs);
2191 break;
2192
2193 case SNAPSHOT_CREATE:
2194 memset(&sn, 0, sizeof(sn));
2195 pstrcpy(sn.name, sizeof(sn.name), snapshot_name);
2196
2197 qemu_gettimeofday(&tv);
2198 sn.date_sec = tv.tv_sec;
2199 sn.date_nsec = tv.tv_usec * 1000;
2200
2201 ret = bdrv_snapshot_create(bs, &sn);
2202 if (ret) {
2203 error_report("Could not create snapshot '%s': %d (%s)",
2204 snapshot_name, ret, strerror(-ret));
2205 }
2206 break;
2207
2208 case SNAPSHOT_APPLY:
2209 ret = bdrv_snapshot_goto(bs, snapshot_name);
2210 if (ret) {
2211 error_report("Could not apply snapshot '%s': %d (%s)",
2212 snapshot_name, ret, strerror(-ret));
2213 }
2214 break;
2215
2216 case SNAPSHOT_DELETE:
2217 bdrv_snapshot_delete_by_id_or_name(bs, snapshot_name, &err);
2218 if (err) {
2219 error_report("Could not delete snapshot '%s': (%s)",
2220 snapshot_name, error_get_pretty(err));
2221 error_free(err);
2222 ret = 1;
2223 }
2224 break;
2225 }
2226
2227 /* Cleanup */
2228 bdrv_unref(bs);
2229 if (ret) {
2230 return 1;
2231 }
2232 return 0;
2233 }
2234
2235 static int img_rebase(int argc, char **argv)
2236 {
2237 BlockDriverState *bs, *bs_old_backing = NULL, *bs_new_backing = NULL;
2238 BlockDriver *old_backing_drv, *new_backing_drv;
2239 char *filename;
2240 const char *fmt, *cache, *out_basefmt, *out_baseimg;
2241 int c, flags, ret;
2242 int unsafe = 0;
2243 int progress = 0;
2244 bool quiet = false;
2245 Error *local_err = NULL;
2246
2247 /* Parse commandline parameters */
2248 fmt = NULL;
2249 cache = BDRV_DEFAULT_CACHE;
2250 out_baseimg = NULL;
2251 out_basefmt = NULL;
2252 for(;;) {
2253 c = getopt(argc, argv, "uhf:F:b:pt:q");
2254 if (c == -1) {
2255 break;
2256 }
2257 switch(c) {
2258 case '?':
2259 case 'h':
2260 help();
2261 return 0;
2262 case 'f':
2263 fmt = optarg;
2264 break;
2265 case 'F':
2266 out_basefmt = optarg;
2267 break;
2268 case 'b':
2269 out_baseimg = optarg;
2270 break;
2271 case 'u':
2272 unsafe = 1;
2273 break;
2274 case 'p':
2275 progress = 1;
2276 break;
2277 case 't':
2278 cache = optarg;
2279 break;
2280 case 'q':
2281 quiet = true;
2282 break;
2283 }
2284 }
2285
2286 if (quiet) {
2287 progress = 0;
2288 }
2289
2290 if ((optind != argc - 1) || (!unsafe && !out_baseimg)) {
2291 help();
2292 }
2293 filename = argv[optind++];
2294
2295 qemu_progress_init(progress, 2.0);
2296 qemu_progress_print(0, 100);
2297
2298 flags = BDRV_O_RDWR | (unsafe ? BDRV_O_NO_BACKING : 0);
2299 ret = bdrv_parse_cache_flags(cache, &flags);
2300 if (ret < 0) {
2301 error_report("Invalid cache option: %s", cache);
2302 return -1;
2303 }
2304
2305 /*
2306 * Open the images.
2307 *
2308 * Ignore the old backing file for unsafe rebase in case we want to correct
2309 * the reference to a renamed or moved backing file.
2310 */
2311 bs = bdrv_new_open(filename, fmt, flags, true, quiet);
2312 if (!bs) {
2313 return 1;
2314 }
2315
2316 /* Find the right drivers for the backing files */
2317 old_backing_drv = NULL;
2318 new_backing_drv = NULL;
2319
2320 if (!unsafe && bs->backing_format[0] != '\0') {
2321 old_backing_drv = bdrv_find_format(bs->backing_format);
2322 if (old_backing_drv == NULL) {
2323 error_report("Invalid format name: '%s'", bs->backing_format);
2324 ret = -1;
2325 goto out;
2326 }
2327 }
2328
2329 if (out_basefmt != NULL) {
2330 new_backing_drv = bdrv_find_format(out_basefmt);
2331 if (new_backing_drv == NULL) {
2332 error_report("Invalid format name: '%s'", out_basefmt);
2333 ret = -1;
2334 goto out;
2335 }
2336 }
2337
2338 /* For safe rebasing we need to compare old and new backing file */
2339 if (unsafe) {
2340 /* Make the compiler happy */
2341 bs_old_backing = NULL;
2342 bs_new_backing = NULL;
2343 } else {
2344 char backing_name[1024];
2345
2346 bs_old_backing = bdrv_new("old_backing");
2347 bdrv_get_backing_filename(bs, backing_name, sizeof(backing_name));
2348 ret = bdrv_open(&bs_old_backing, backing_name, NULL, NULL, BDRV_O_FLAGS,
2349 old_backing_drv, &local_err);
2350 if (ret) {
2351 error_report("Could not open old backing file '%s': %s",
2352 backing_name, error_get_pretty(local_err));
2353 error_free(local_err);
2354 goto out;
2355 }
2356 if (out_baseimg[0]) {
2357 bs_new_backing = bdrv_new("new_backing");
2358 ret = bdrv_open(&bs_new_backing, out_baseimg, NULL, NULL,
2359 BDRV_O_FLAGS, new_backing_drv, &local_err);
2360 if (ret) {
2361 error_report("Could not open new backing file '%s': %s",
2362 out_baseimg, error_get_pretty(local_err));
2363 error_free(local_err);
2364 goto out;
2365 }
2366 }
2367 }
2368
2369 /*
2370 * Check each unallocated cluster in the COW file. If it is unallocated,
2371 * accesses go to the backing file. We must therefore compare this cluster
2372 * in the old and new backing file, and if they differ we need to copy it
2373 * from the old backing file into the COW file.
2374 *
2375 * If qemu-img crashes during this step, no harm is done. The content of
2376 * the image is the same as the original one at any time.
2377 */
2378 if (!unsafe) {
2379 uint64_t num_sectors;
2380 uint64_t old_backing_num_sectors;
2381 uint64_t new_backing_num_sectors = 0;
2382 uint64_t sector;
2383 int n;
2384 uint8_t * buf_old;
2385 uint8_t * buf_new;
2386 float local_progress = 0;
2387
2388 buf_old = qemu_blockalign(bs, IO_BUF_SIZE);
2389 buf_new = qemu_blockalign(bs, IO_BUF_SIZE);
2390
2391 bdrv_get_geometry(bs, &num_sectors);
2392 bdrv_get_geometry(bs_old_backing, &old_backing_num_sectors);
2393 if (bs_new_backing) {
2394 bdrv_get_geometry(bs_new_backing, &new_backing_num_sectors);
2395 }
2396
2397 if (num_sectors != 0) {
2398 local_progress = (float)100 /
2399 (num_sectors / MIN(num_sectors, IO_BUF_SIZE / 512));
2400 }
2401
2402 for (sector = 0; sector < num_sectors; sector += n) {
2403
2404 /* How many sectors can we handle with the next read? */
2405 if (sector + (IO_BUF_SIZE / 512) <= num_sectors) {
2406 n = (IO_BUF_SIZE / 512);
2407 } else {
2408 n = num_sectors - sector;
2409 }
2410
2411 /* If the cluster is allocated, we don't need to take action */
2412 ret = bdrv_is_allocated(bs, sector, n, &n);
2413 if (ret < 0) {
2414 error_report("error while reading image metadata: %s",
2415 strerror(-ret));
2416 goto out;
2417 }
2418 if (ret) {
2419 continue;
2420 }
2421
2422 /*
2423 * Read old and new backing file and take into consideration that
2424 * backing files may be smaller than the COW image.
2425 */
2426 if (sector >= old_backing_num_sectors) {
2427 memset(buf_old, 0, n * BDRV_SECTOR_SIZE);
2428 } else {
2429 if (sector + n > old_backing_num_sectors) {
2430 n = old_backing_num_sectors - sector;
2431 }
2432
2433 ret = bdrv_read(bs_old_backing, sector, buf_old, n);
2434 if (ret < 0) {
2435 error_report("error while reading from old backing file");
2436 goto out;
2437 }
2438 }
2439
2440 if (sector >= new_backing_num_sectors || !bs_new_backing) {
2441 memset(buf_new, 0, n * BDRV_SECTOR_SIZE);
2442 } else {
2443 if (sector + n > new_backing_num_sectors) {
2444 n = new_backing_num_sectors - sector;
2445 }
2446
2447 ret = bdrv_read(bs_new_backing, sector, buf_new, n);
2448 if (ret < 0) {
2449 error_report("error while reading from new backing file");
2450 goto out;
2451 }
2452 }
2453
2454 /* If they differ, we need to write to the COW file */
2455 uint64_t written = 0;
2456
2457 while (written < n) {
2458 int pnum;
2459
2460 if (compare_sectors(buf_old + written * 512,
2461 buf_new + written * 512, n - written, &pnum))
2462 {
2463 ret = bdrv_write(bs, sector + written,
2464 buf_old + written * 512, pnum);
2465 if (ret < 0) {
2466 error_report("Error while writing to COW image: %s",
2467 strerror(-ret));
2468 goto out;
2469 }
2470 }
2471
2472 written += pnum;
2473 }
2474 qemu_progress_print(local_progress, 100);
2475 }
2476
2477 qemu_vfree(buf_old);
2478 qemu_vfree(buf_new);
2479 }
2480
2481 /*
2482 * Change the backing file. All clusters that are different from the old
2483 * backing file are overwritten in the COW file now, so the visible content
2484 * doesn't change when we switch the backing file.
2485 */
2486 if (out_baseimg && *out_baseimg) {
2487 ret = bdrv_change_backing_file(bs, out_baseimg, out_basefmt);
2488 } else {
2489 ret = bdrv_change_backing_file(bs, NULL, NULL);
2490 }
2491
2492 if (ret == -ENOSPC) {
2493 error_report("Could not change the backing file to '%s': No "
2494 "space left in the file header", out_baseimg);
2495 } else if (ret < 0) {
2496 error_report("Could not change the backing file to '%s': %s",
2497 out_baseimg, strerror(-ret));
2498 }
2499
2500 qemu_progress_print(100, 0);
2501 /*
2502 * TODO At this point it is possible to check if any clusters that are
2503 * allocated in the COW file are the same in the backing file. If so, they
2504 * could be dropped from the COW file. Don't do this before switching the
2505 * backing file, in case of a crash this would lead to corruption.
2506 */
2507 out:
2508 qemu_progress_end();
2509 /* Cleanup */
2510 if (!unsafe) {
2511 if (bs_old_backing != NULL) {
2512 bdrv_unref(bs_old_backing);
2513 }
2514 if (bs_new_backing != NULL) {
2515 bdrv_unref(bs_new_backing);
2516 }
2517 }
2518
2519 bdrv_unref(bs);
2520 if (ret) {
2521 return 1;
2522 }
2523 return 0;
2524 }
2525
2526 static int img_resize(int argc, char **argv)
2527 {
2528 int c, ret, relative;
2529 const char *filename, *fmt, *size;
2530 int64_t n, total_size;
2531 bool quiet = false;
2532 BlockDriverState *bs = NULL;
2533 QemuOpts *param;
2534 static QemuOptsList resize_options = {
2535 .name = "resize_options",
2536 .head = QTAILQ_HEAD_INITIALIZER(resize_options.head),
2537 .desc = {
2538 {
2539 .name = BLOCK_OPT_SIZE,
2540 .type = QEMU_OPT_SIZE,
2541 .help = "Virtual disk size"
2542 }, {
2543 /* end of list */
2544 }
2545 },
2546 };
2547
2548 /* Remove size from argv manually so that negative numbers are not treated
2549 * as options by getopt. */
2550 if (argc < 3) {
2551 help();
2552 return 1;
2553 }
2554
2555 size = argv[--argc];
2556
2557 /* Parse getopt arguments */
2558 fmt = NULL;
2559 for(;;) {
2560 c = getopt(argc, argv, "f:hq");
2561 if (c == -1) {
2562 break;
2563 }
2564 switch(c) {
2565 case '?':
2566 case 'h':
2567 help();
2568 break;
2569 case 'f':
2570 fmt = optarg;
2571 break;
2572 case 'q':
2573 quiet = true;
2574 break;
2575 }
2576 }
2577 if (optind != argc - 1) {
2578 help();
2579 }
2580 filename = argv[optind++];
2581
2582 /* Choose grow, shrink, or absolute resize mode */
2583 switch (size[0]) {
2584 case '+':
2585 relative = 1;
2586 size++;
2587 break;
2588 case '-':
2589 relative = -1;
2590 size++;
2591 break;
2592 default:
2593 relative = 0;
2594 break;
2595 }
2596
2597 /* Parse size */
2598 param = qemu_opts_create(&resize_options, NULL, 0, &error_abort);
2599 if (qemu_opt_set(param, BLOCK_OPT_SIZE, size)) {
2600 /* Error message already printed when size parsing fails */
2601 ret = -1;
2602 qemu_opts_del(param);
2603 goto out;
2604 }
2605 n = qemu_opt_get_size(param, BLOCK_OPT_SIZE, 0);
2606 qemu_opts_del(param);
2607
2608 bs = bdrv_new_open(filename, fmt, BDRV_O_FLAGS | BDRV_O_RDWR, true, quiet);
2609 if (!bs) {
2610 ret = -1;
2611 goto out;
2612 }
2613
2614 if (relative) {
2615 total_size = bdrv_getlength(bs) + n * relative;
2616 } else {
2617 total_size = n;
2618 }
2619 if (total_size <= 0) {
2620 error_report("New image size must be positive");
2621 ret = -1;
2622 goto out;
2623 }
2624
2625 ret = bdrv_truncate(bs, total_size);
2626 switch (ret) {
2627 case 0:
2628 qprintf(quiet, "Image resized.\n");
2629 break;
2630 case -ENOTSUP:
2631 error_report("This image does not support resize");
2632 break;
2633 case -EACCES:
2634 error_report("Image is read-only");
2635 break;
2636 default:
2637 error_report("Error resizing image (%d)", -ret);
2638 break;
2639 }
2640 out:
2641 if (bs) {
2642 bdrv_unref(bs);
2643 }
2644 if (ret) {
2645 return 1;
2646 }
2647 return 0;
2648 }
2649
2650 static int img_amend(int argc, char **argv)
2651 {
2652 int c, ret = 0;
2653 char *options = NULL;
2654 QEMUOptionParameter *create_options = NULL, *options_param = NULL;
2655 const char *fmt = NULL, *filename;
2656 bool quiet = false;
2657 BlockDriverState *bs = NULL;
2658
2659 for (;;) {
2660 c = getopt(argc, argv, "hqf:o:");
2661 if (c == -1) {
2662 break;
2663 }
2664
2665 switch (c) {
2666 case 'h':
2667 case '?':
2668 help();
2669 break;
2670 case 'o':
2671 if (!is_valid_option_list(optarg)) {
2672 error_report("Invalid option list: %s", optarg);
2673 ret = -1;
2674 goto out;
2675 }
2676 if (!options) {
2677 options = g_strdup(optarg);
2678 } else {
2679 char *old_options = options;
2680 options = g_strdup_printf("%s,%s", options, optarg);
2681 g_free(old_options);
2682 }
2683 break;
2684 case 'f':
2685 fmt = optarg;
2686 break;
2687 case 'q':
2688 quiet = true;
2689 break;
2690 }
2691 }
2692
2693 if (!options) {
2694 help();
2695 }
2696
2697 filename = (optind == argc - 1) ? argv[argc - 1] : NULL;
2698 if (fmt && has_help_option(options)) {
2699 /* If a format is explicitly specified (and possibly no filename is
2700 * given), print option help here */
2701 ret = print_block_option_help(filename, fmt);
2702 goto out;
2703 }
2704
2705 if (optind != argc - 1) {
2706 help();
2707 }
2708
2709 bs = bdrv_new_open(filename, fmt, BDRV_O_FLAGS | BDRV_O_RDWR, true, quiet);
2710 if (!bs) {
2711 error_report("Could not open image '%s'", filename);
2712 ret = -1;
2713 goto out;
2714 }
2715
2716 fmt = bs->drv->format_name;
2717
2718 if (has_help_option(options)) {
2719 /* If the format was auto-detected, print option help here */
2720 ret = print_block_option_help(filename, fmt);
2721 goto out;
2722 }
2723
2724 create_options = append_option_parameters(create_options,
2725 bs->drv->create_options);
2726 options_param = parse_option_parameters(options, create_options,
2727 options_param);
2728 if (options_param == NULL) {
2729 error_report("Invalid options for file format '%s'", fmt);
2730 ret = -1;
2731 goto out;
2732 }
2733
2734 ret = bdrv_amend_options(bs, options_param);
2735 if (ret < 0) {
2736 error_report("Error while amending options: %s", strerror(-ret));
2737 goto out;
2738 }
2739
2740 out:
2741 if (bs) {
2742 bdrv_unref(bs);
2743 }
2744 free_option_parameters(create_options);
2745 free_option_parameters(options_param);
2746 g_free(options);
2747
2748 if (ret) {
2749 return 1;
2750 }
2751 return 0;
2752 }
2753
2754 static const img_cmd_t img_cmds[] = {
2755 #define DEF(option, callback, arg_string) \
2756 { option, callback },
2757 #include "qemu-img-cmds.h"
2758 #undef DEF
2759 #undef GEN_DOCS
2760 { NULL, NULL, },
2761 };
2762
2763 int main(int argc, char **argv)
2764 {
2765 const img_cmd_t *cmd;
2766 const char *cmdname;
2767
2768 #ifdef CONFIG_POSIX
2769 signal(SIGPIPE, SIG_IGN);
2770 #endif
2771
2772 error_set_progname(argv[0]);
2773 qemu_init_exec_dir(argv[0]);
2774
2775 qemu_init_main_loop();
2776 bdrv_init();
2777 if (argc < 2)
2778 help();
2779 cmdname = argv[1];
2780 argc--; argv++;
2781
2782 /* find the command */
2783 for(cmd = img_cmds; cmd->name != NULL; cmd++) {
2784 if (!strcmp(cmdname, cmd->name)) {
2785 return cmd->handler(argc, argv);
2786 }
2787 }
2788
2789 /* not found */
2790 help();
2791 return 0;
2792 }