hw/arm/virt: parameter passing cleanups
[qemu.git] / scripts / dump-guest-memory.py
1 """
2 This python script adds a new gdb command, "dump-guest-memory". It
3 should be loaded with "source dump-guest-memory.py" at the (gdb)
4 prompt.
5
6 Copyright (C) 2013, Red Hat, Inc.
7
8 Authors:
9 Laszlo Ersek <lersek@redhat.com>
10 Janosch Frank <frankja@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
11
12 This work is licensed under the terms of the GNU GPL, version 2 or later. See
13 the COPYING file in the top-level directory.
14 """
15
16 import ctypes
17
18 UINTPTR_T = gdb.lookup_type("uintptr_t")
19
20 TARGET_PAGE_SIZE = 0x1000
21 TARGET_PAGE_MASK = 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFF000
22
23 # Special value for e_phnum. This indicates that the real number of
24 # program headers is too large to fit into e_phnum. Instead the real
25 # value is in the field sh_info of section 0.
26 PN_XNUM = 0xFFFF
27
28 EV_CURRENT = 1
29
30 ELFCLASS32 = 1
31 ELFCLASS64 = 2
32
33 ELFDATA2LSB = 1
34 ELFDATA2MSB = 2
35
36 ET_CORE = 4
37
38 PT_LOAD = 1
39 PT_NOTE = 4
40
41 EM_386 = 3
42 EM_PPC = 20
43 EM_PPC64 = 21
44 EM_S390 = 22
45 EM_AARCH = 183
46 EM_X86_64 = 62
47
48 class ELF(object):
49 """Representation of a ELF file."""
50
51 def __init__(self, arch):
52 self.ehdr = None
53 self.notes = []
54 self.segments = []
55 self.notes_size = 0
56 self.endianness = None
57 self.elfclass = ELFCLASS64
58
59 if arch == 'aarch64-le':
60 self.endianness = ELFDATA2LSB
61 self.elfclass = ELFCLASS64
62 self.ehdr = get_arch_ehdr(self.endianness, self.elfclass)
63 self.ehdr.e_machine = EM_AARCH
64
65 elif arch == 'aarch64-be':
66 self.endianness = ELFDATA2MSB
67 self.ehdr = get_arch_ehdr(self.endianness, self.elfclass)
68 self.ehdr.e_machine = EM_AARCH
69
70 elif arch == 'X86_64':
71 self.endianness = ELFDATA2LSB
72 self.ehdr = get_arch_ehdr(self.endianness, self.elfclass)
73 self.ehdr.e_machine = EM_X86_64
74
75 elif arch == '386':
76 self.endianness = ELFDATA2LSB
77 self.elfclass = ELFCLASS32
78 self.ehdr = get_arch_ehdr(self.endianness, self.elfclass)
79 self.ehdr.e_machine = EM_386
80
81 elif arch == 's390':
82 self.endianness = ELFDATA2MSB
83 self.ehdr = get_arch_ehdr(self.endianness, self.elfclass)
84 self.ehdr.e_machine = EM_S390
85
86 elif arch == 'ppc64-le':
87 self.endianness = ELFDATA2LSB
88 self.ehdr = get_arch_ehdr(self.endianness, self.elfclass)
89 self.ehdr.e_machine = EM_PPC64
90
91 elif arch == 'ppc64-be':
92 self.endianness = ELFDATA2MSB
93 self.ehdr = get_arch_ehdr(self.endianness, self.elfclass)
94 self.ehdr.e_machine = EM_PPC64
95
96 else:
97 raise gdb.GdbError("No valid arch type specified.\n"
98 "Currently supported types:\n"
99 "aarch64-be, aarch64-le, X86_64, 386, s390, "
100 "ppc64-be, ppc64-le")
101
102 self.add_segment(PT_NOTE, 0, 0)
103
104 def add_note(self, n_name, n_desc, n_type):
105 """Adds a note to the ELF."""
106
107 note = get_arch_note(self.endianness, len(n_name), len(n_desc))
108 note.n_namesz = len(n_name) + 1
109 note.n_descsz = len(n_desc)
110 note.n_name = n_name.encode()
111 note.n_type = n_type
112
113 # Desc needs to be 4 byte aligned (although the 64bit spec
114 # specifies 8 byte). When defining n_desc as uint32 it will be
115 # automatically aligned but we need the memmove to copy the
116 # string into it.
117 ctypes.memmove(note.n_desc, n_desc.encode(), len(n_desc))
118
119 self.notes.append(note)
120 self.segments[0].p_filesz += ctypes.sizeof(note)
121 self.segments[0].p_memsz += ctypes.sizeof(note)
122
123 def add_segment(self, p_type, p_paddr, p_size):
124 """Adds a segment to the elf."""
125
126 phdr = get_arch_phdr(self.endianness, self.elfclass)
127 phdr.p_type = p_type
128 phdr.p_paddr = p_paddr
129 phdr.p_filesz = p_size
130 phdr.p_memsz = p_size
131 self.segments.append(phdr)
132 self.ehdr.e_phnum += 1
133
134 def to_file(self, elf_file):
135 """Writes all ELF structures to the the passed file.
136
137 Structure:
138 Ehdr
139 Segment 0:PT_NOTE
140 Segment 1:PT_LOAD
141 Segment N:PT_LOAD
142 Note 0..N
143 Dump contents
144 """
145 elf_file.write(self.ehdr)
146 off = ctypes.sizeof(self.ehdr) + \
147 len(self.segments) * ctypes.sizeof(self.segments[0])
148
149 for phdr in self.segments:
150 phdr.p_offset = off
151 elf_file.write(phdr)
152 off += phdr.p_filesz
153
154 for note in self.notes:
155 elf_file.write(note)
156
157
158 def get_arch_note(endianness, len_name, len_desc):
159 """Returns a Note class with the specified endianness."""
160
161 if endianness == ELFDATA2LSB:
162 superclass = ctypes.LittleEndianStructure
163 else:
164 superclass = ctypes.BigEndianStructure
165
166 len_name = len_name + 1
167
168 class Note(superclass):
169 """Represents an ELF note, includes the content."""
170
171 _fields_ = [("n_namesz", ctypes.c_uint32),
172 ("n_descsz", ctypes.c_uint32),
173 ("n_type", ctypes.c_uint32),
174 ("n_name", ctypes.c_char * len_name),
175 ("n_desc", ctypes.c_uint32 * ((len_desc + 3) // 4))]
176 return Note()
177
178
179 class Ident(ctypes.Structure):
180 """Represents the ELF ident array in the ehdr structure."""
181
182 _fields_ = [('ei_mag0', ctypes.c_ubyte),
183 ('ei_mag1', ctypes.c_ubyte),
184 ('ei_mag2', ctypes.c_ubyte),
185 ('ei_mag3', ctypes.c_ubyte),
186 ('ei_class', ctypes.c_ubyte),
187 ('ei_data', ctypes.c_ubyte),
188 ('ei_version', ctypes.c_ubyte),
189 ('ei_osabi', ctypes.c_ubyte),
190 ('ei_abiversion', ctypes.c_ubyte),
191 ('ei_pad', ctypes.c_ubyte * 7)]
192
193 def __init__(self, endianness, elfclass):
194 self.ei_mag0 = 0x7F
195 self.ei_mag1 = ord('E')
196 self.ei_mag2 = ord('L')
197 self.ei_mag3 = ord('F')
198 self.ei_class = elfclass
199 self.ei_data = endianness
200 self.ei_version = EV_CURRENT
201
202
203 def get_arch_ehdr(endianness, elfclass):
204 """Returns a EHDR64 class with the specified endianness."""
205
206 if endianness == ELFDATA2LSB:
207 superclass = ctypes.LittleEndianStructure
208 else:
209 superclass = ctypes.BigEndianStructure
210
211 class EHDR64(superclass):
212 """Represents the 64 bit ELF header struct."""
213
214 _fields_ = [('e_ident', Ident),
215 ('e_type', ctypes.c_uint16),
216 ('e_machine', ctypes.c_uint16),
217 ('e_version', ctypes.c_uint32),
218 ('e_entry', ctypes.c_uint64),
219 ('e_phoff', ctypes.c_uint64),
220 ('e_shoff', ctypes.c_uint64),
221 ('e_flags', ctypes.c_uint32),
222 ('e_ehsize', ctypes.c_uint16),
223 ('e_phentsize', ctypes.c_uint16),
224 ('e_phnum', ctypes.c_uint16),
225 ('e_shentsize', ctypes.c_uint16),
226 ('e_shnum', ctypes.c_uint16),
227 ('e_shstrndx', ctypes.c_uint16)]
228
229 def __init__(self):
230 super(superclass, self).__init__()
231 self.e_ident = Ident(endianness, elfclass)
232 self.e_type = ET_CORE
233 self.e_version = EV_CURRENT
234 self.e_ehsize = ctypes.sizeof(self)
235 self.e_phoff = ctypes.sizeof(self)
236 self.e_phentsize = ctypes.sizeof(get_arch_phdr(endianness, elfclass))
237 self.e_phnum = 0
238
239
240 class EHDR32(superclass):
241 """Represents the 32 bit ELF header struct."""
242
243 _fields_ = [('e_ident', Ident),
244 ('e_type', ctypes.c_uint16),
245 ('e_machine', ctypes.c_uint16),
246 ('e_version', ctypes.c_uint32),
247 ('e_entry', ctypes.c_uint32),
248 ('e_phoff', ctypes.c_uint32),
249 ('e_shoff', ctypes.c_uint32),
250 ('e_flags', ctypes.c_uint32),
251 ('e_ehsize', ctypes.c_uint16),
252 ('e_phentsize', ctypes.c_uint16),
253 ('e_phnum', ctypes.c_uint16),
254 ('e_shentsize', ctypes.c_uint16),
255 ('e_shnum', ctypes.c_uint16),
256 ('e_shstrndx', ctypes.c_uint16)]
257
258 def __init__(self):
259 super(superclass, self).__init__()
260 self.e_ident = Ident(endianness, elfclass)
261 self.e_type = ET_CORE
262 self.e_version = EV_CURRENT
263 self.e_ehsize = ctypes.sizeof(self)
264 self.e_phoff = ctypes.sizeof(self)
265 self.e_phentsize = ctypes.sizeof(get_arch_phdr(endianness, elfclass))
266 self.e_phnum = 0
267
268 # End get_arch_ehdr
269 if elfclass == ELFCLASS64:
270 return EHDR64()
271 else:
272 return EHDR32()
273
274
275 def get_arch_phdr(endianness, elfclass):
276 """Returns a 32 or 64 bit PHDR class with the specified endianness."""
277
278 if endianness == ELFDATA2LSB:
279 superclass = ctypes.LittleEndianStructure
280 else:
281 superclass = ctypes.BigEndianStructure
282
283 class PHDR64(superclass):
284 """Represents the 64 bit ELF program header struct."""
285
286 _fields_ = [('p_type', ctypes.c_uint32),
287 ('p_flags', ctypes.c_uint32),
288 ('p_offset', ctypes.c_uint64),
289 ('p_vaddr', ctypes.c_uint64),
290 ('p_paddr', ctypes.c_uint64),
291 ('p_filesz', ctypes.c_uint64),
292 ('p_memsz', ctypes.c_uint64),
293 ('p_align', ctypes.c_uint64)]
294
295 class PHDR32(superclass):
296 """Represents the 32 bit ELF program header struct."""
297
298 _fields_ = [('p_type', ctypes.c_uint32),
299 ('p_offset', ctypes.c_uint32),
300 ('p_vaddr', ctypes.c_uint32),
301 ('p_paddr', ctypes.c_uint32),
302 ('p_filesz', ctypes.c_uint32),
303 ('p_memsz', ctypes.c_uint32),
304 ('p_flags', ctypes.c_uint32),
305 ('p_align', ctypes.c_uint32)]
306
307 # End get_arch_phdr
308 if elfclass == ELFCLASS64:
309 return PHDR64()
310 else:
311 return PHDR32()
312
313
314 def int128_get64(val):
315 """Returns low 64bit part of Int128 struct."""
316
317 assert val["hi"] == 0
318 return val["lo"]
319
320
321 def qlist_foreach(head, field_str):
322 """Generator for qlists."""
323
324 var_p = head["lh_first"]
325 while var_p != 0:
326 var = var_p.dereference()
327 var_p = var[field_str]["le_next"]
328 yield var
329
330
331 def qemu_map_ram_ptr(block, offset):
332 """Returns qemu vaddr for given guest physical address."""
333
334 return block["host"] + offset
335
336
337 def memory_region_get_ram_ptr(memory_region):
338 if memory_region["alias"] != 0:
339 return (memory_region_get_ram_ptr(memory_region["alias"].dereference())
340 + memory_region["alias_offset"])
341
342 return qemu_map_ram_ptr(memory_region["ram_block"], 0)
343
344
345 def get_guest_phys_blocks():
346 """Returns a list of ram blocks.
347
348 Each block entry contains:
349 'target_start': guest block phys start address
350 'target_end': guest block phys end address
351 'host_addr': qemu vaddr of the block's start
352 """
353
354 guest_phys_blocks = []
355
356 print("guest RAM blocks:")
357 print("target_start target_end host_addr message "
358 "count")
359 print("---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ------- "
360 "-----")
361
362 current_map_p = gdb.parse_and_eval("address_space_memory.current_map")
363 current_map = current_map_p.dereference()
364
365 # Conversion to int is needed for python 3
366 # compatibility. Otherwise range doesn't cast the value itself and
367 # breaks.
368 for cur in range(int(current_map["nr"])):
369 flat_range = (current_map["ranges"] + cur).dereference()
370 memory_region = flat_range["mr"].dereference()
371
372 # we only care about RAM
373 if not memory_region["ram"]:
374 continue
375
376 section_size = int128_get64(flat_range["addr"]["size"])
377 target_start = int128_get64(flat_range["addr"]["start"])
378 target_end = target_start + section_size
379 host_addr = (memory_region_get_ram_ptr(memory_region)
380 + flat_range["offset_in_region"])
381 predecessor = None
382
383 # find continuity in guest physical address space
384 if len(guest_phys_blocks) > 0:
385 predecessor = guest_phys_blocks[-1]
386 predecessor_size = (predecessor["target_end"] -
387 predecessor["target_start"])
388
389 # the memory API guarantees monotonically increasing
390 # traversal
391 assert predecessor["target_end"] <= target_start
392
393 # we want continuity in both guest-physical and
394 # host-virtual memory
395 if (predecessor["target_end"] < target_start or
396 predecessor["host_addr"] + predecessor_size != host_addr):
397 predecessor = None
398
399 if predecessor is None:
400 # isolated mapping, add it to the list
401 guest_phys_blocks.append({"target_start": target_start,
402 "target_end": target_end,
403 "host_addr": host_addr})
404 message = "added"
405 else:
406 # expand predecessor until @target_end; predecessor's
407 # start doesn't change
408 predecessor["target_end"] = target_end
409 message = "joined"
410
411 print("%016x %016x %016x %-7s %5u" %
412 (target_start, target_end, host_addr.cast(UINTPTR_T),
413 message, len(guest_phys_blocks)))
414
415 return guest_phys_blocks
416
417
418 # The leading docstring doesn't have idiomatic Python formatting. It is
419 # printed by gdb's "help" command (the first line is printed in the
420 # "help data" summary), and it should match how other help texts look in
421 # gdb.
422 class DumpGuestMemory(gdb.Command):
423 """Extract guest vmcore from qemu process coredump.
424
425 The two required arguments are FILE and ARCH:
426 FILE identifies the target file to write the guest vmcore to.
427 ARCH specifies the architecture for which the core will be generated.
428
429 This GDB command reimplements the dump-guest-memory QMP command in
430 python, using the representation of guest memory as captured in the qemu
431 coredump. The qemu process that has been dumped must have had the
432 command line option "-machine dump-guest-core=on" which is the default.
433
434 For simplicity, the "paging", "begin" and "end" parameters of the QMP
435 command are not supported -- no attempt is made to get the guest's
436 internal paging structures (ie. paging=false is hard-wired), and guest
437 memory is always fully dumped.
438
439 Currently aarch64-be, aarch64-le, X86_64, 386, s390, ppc64-be,
440 ppc64-le guests are supported.
441
442 The CORE/NT_PRSTATUS and QEMU notes (that is, the VCPUs' statuses) are
443 not written to the vmcore. Preparing these would require context that is
444 only present in the KVM host kernel module when the guest is alive. A
445 fake ELF note is written instead, only to keep the ELF parser of "crash"
446 happy.
447
448 Dependent on how busted the qemu process was at the time of the
449 coredump, this command might produce unpredictable results. If qemu
450 deliberately called abort(), or it was dumped in response to a signal at
451 a halfway fortunate point, then its coredump should be in reasonable
452 shape and this command should mostly work."""
453
454 def __init__(self):
455 super(DumpGuestMemory, self).__init__("dump-guest-memory",
456 gdb.COMMAND_DATA,
457 gdb.COMPLETE_FILENAME)
458 self.elf = None
459 self.guest_phys_blocks = None
460
461 def dump_init(self, vmcore):
462 """Prepares and writes ELF structures to core file."""
463
464 # Needed to make crash happy, data for more useful notes is
465 # not available in a qemu core.
466 self.elf.add_note("NONE", "EMPTY", 0)
467
468 # We should never reach PN_XNUM for paging=false dumps,
469 # there's just a handful of discontiguous ranges after
470 # merging.
471 # The constant is needed to account for the PT_NOTE segment.
472 phdr_num = len(self.guest_phys_blocks) + 1
473 assert phdr_num < PN_XNUM
474
475 for block in self.guest_phys_blocks:
476 block_size = block["target_end"] - block["target_start"]
477 self.elf.add_segment(PT_LOAD, block["target_start"], block_size)
478
479 self.elf.to_file(vmcore)
480
481 def dump_iterate(self, vmcore):
482 """Writes guest core to file."""
483
484 qemu_core = gdb.inferiors()[0]
485 for block in self.guest_phys_blocks:
486 cur = block["host_addr"]
487 left = block["target_end"] - block["target_start"]
488 print("dumping range at %016x for length %016x" %
489 (cur.cast(UINTPTR_T), left))
490
491 while left > 0:
492 chunk_size = min(TARGET_PAGE_SIZE, left)
493 chunk = qemu_core.read_memory(cur, chunk_size)
494 vmcore.write(chunk)
495 cur += chunk_size
496 left -= chunk_size
497
498 def invoke(self, args, from_tty):
499 """Handles command invocation from gdb."""
500
501 # Unwittingly pressing the Enter key after the command should
502 # not dump the same multi-gig coredump to the same file.
503 self.dont_repeat()
504
505 argv = gdb.string_to_argv(args)
506 if len(argv) != 2:
507 raise gdb.GdbError("usage: dump-guest-memory FILE ARCH")
508
509 self.elf = ELF(argv[1])
510 self.guest_phys_blocks = get_guest_phys_blocks()
511
512 with open(argv[0], "wb") as vmcore:
513 self.dump_init(vmcore)
514 self.dump_iterate(vmcore)
515
516 DumpGuestMemory()